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Churchyard cross, All Saints' churchyard

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Churchyard cross, All Saints' churchyard

List entry Number: 1009211

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Lincolnshire

District: South Kesteven

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Westborough and Dry Doddington

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 13-Oct-1994

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 22655

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone, mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD). Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the scenes of games or recreational activity. Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the 13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base, buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their original location, are considered worthy of protection.

The churchyard cross at Westborough is a good example of the remains of a medieval standing cross with a quadrangular socket-stone and octagonal shaft. Situated to the south of the church, it is believed to stand in or near its original position. Limited disturbance of the area immediately surrounding the cross indicates that archaeological deposits relating to the monument's construction and use are likely to survive intact. The remains of the cross have been little altered in modern times, having continued in use as a public monument and amenity from medieval times to the present day.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a standing stone cross located in the churchyard of All Saints' Church, Westborough, approximately 5m south east of the south porch. The cross is constructed of limestone and is medieval in date with later repairs. The monument includes the foundation and base, comprising one step and a socket-stone, the shaft, knop and a fragment of the head.

The foundation of the cross includes a plinth constructed of limestone blocks, partially exposed where the ground falls away to the south. It covers an area about 1.5m square. On the plinth rests the step, constructed of worn limestone blocks repaired with brick and mortar. It is about 1.4m square and 0.37m high, and is plain apart from slightly chamfered upper corners. On the northern side of the cross the step is partly buried. The socket-stone is roughly 0.9m square in section at the base and is chamfered to 0.73m square, with slightly chamfered upper corners. It stands over 0.5m in height. The shaft is set in the centre of the socket-stone and is 0.36m square in section at the base with chamfered corners rising in tapering octagonal section. The knop is also octagonal in section and is moulded; above it is a fragment of the head. The full surviving height of the cross is about 3m.

The cross is also Listed Grade II.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Davies, D S, 'Lincolnshire Notes and Queries' in Ancient Stone Crosses in Kesteven, , Vol. XII no.5, (1913), 149

National Grid Reference: SK 85011 44283

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1009211 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 23-Nov-2017 at 02:50:22.

End of official listing