Two 19th century gig-sheds ENE of Porth Askin
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1009281
Date first listed: 07-Oct-1976
Date of most recent amendment: 04-Oct-1994
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: Isles of Scilly (Unitary Authority)
Parish: St. Agnes
National Grid Reference: SV 88249 07402
Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.
Reasons for Designation
The Isles of Scilly, the westernmost of the granite masses of south west
England, contain a remarkable abundance and variety of archaeological remains
from over 4000 years of human activity. The remote physical setting of the
islands, over 40km beyond the mainland in the approaches to the English
Channel, has lent a distinctive character to those remains, producing many
unusual features important for our broader understanding of the social
development of early communities.
Throughout the human occupation there has been a gradual submergence of the
islands' land area, providing a stimulus to change in the environment and its
exploitation. This process has produced evidence for responses to such change
against an independent time-scale, promoting integrated studies of
archaeological, environmental and linguistic aspects of the islands'
The islands' archaeological remains demonstrate clearly the gradually
expanding size and range of contacts of their communities. By the post-
medieval period (from AD 1540), the islands occupied a nationally strategic
location, resulting in an important concentration of defensive works
reflecting the development of fortification methods and technology from the
mid 16th to the 20th centuries. An important and unusual range of post-
medieval monuments also reflects the islands' position as a formidable hazard
for the nation's shipping in the western approaches.
The exceptional preservation of the archaeological remains on the islands has
long been recognised, producing an unusually full and detailed body of
documentation, including several recent surveys.
Gig sheds are a distinctive form of boat house used to house the pilot boats,
or `gigs', which carried pilots of the Isles of Scilly and western Cornwall to
the shipping which required their skills in navigating the dangerous waters of
the western approaches. Pilotage rose in importance during the 18th and 19th
centuries due to the combination of increasing trade and poor marine charts,
and it formed a major part of the economy of the Isles of Scilly between
c.1720 and c.1870. As the first pilot to reach the waiting ship received the
work, competition between pilots had, by the 19th century, led to the
development of a long and slender rowing boat, the gig. This was c.9m long,
accommodated six or eight oarsmen and was capable of high speed and stability,
even in the rough seas at the western extremity of the south west peninsula.
The design of the gigs in turn determined the form of the gig sheds that
housed them, resulting in narrow, elongated rectangular buildings, measuring
c.10m long, c.2m high and 1.75m to 3m wide internally, built of stone-faced
rubble walling with a rubble and mortar fill. One end, facing the sea, was
left open for launching the gig. Nineteenth century photographs and some
accounts indicate a thatched roof, lashed down with ropes, though some later
examples were roofed with pantiles. Situated close to the shore, gig sheds may
occur singly or in groups of two or more.
All inhabited islands in Scilly formerly had pilots, as did the main ports and
fishing villages of western Cornwall. However during the 19th century,
pilotage became restricted on the Scillies to fewer individuals, mostly from
St Martin's and St Agnes, eventually to be dominated by the St Agnes pilots
who benefitted from their south westerly location in the islands. In 1850, 15
pilot boats were recorded on Scilly.
During the 20th century, some gig sheds in Scilly have been refurbished with
modern materials for other purposes or to house other types of craft. The
later 20th century growth of gig racing as an international sport has also
produced some new gig sheds, using modern materials such as concrete blocks.
The national distribution of gig sheds from the era of pilotage is restricted
to western Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly, for whose maritime conditions the
gigs were specifically developed. Under a dozen pre-20th century gig sheds on
the Isles of Scilly survive without major refurbishment, forming a major part
of the surviving remains from the pilotage that was such an important activity
for the islands' economy. On a wider level, the pilotage represented by the
gig sheds on the Isles of Scilly reflects the islands' strategic position in
the nation's main shipping routes and represents a relatively short lived but
essential navigational aid during the rise of the nation's trade. Consequently
those gig sheds which help to illustrate the original form, construction and
distribution of this class of boat house during the period of pilotage may be
considered worthy of preservation.
These gig-sheds bordering the ENE edge of Porth Askin retain intact their ground plan and wall construction while the burial of much of their walling and floors beneath a substantial depth of wind-blown sand will preserve more extensive details of their fabric which have been prone to robbing or refurbishment in more exposed examples elsewhere. The location of these gig-sheds typify the setting of this monument class, and the 19th century mapped evidence indicates the importance of this bay at the time when St Agnes had come to dominate pilotage. The proximity of these gig-sheds to the other broadly contemporary example nearby to the north west also demonstrates the layout of gig-sheds along the shoreline. Despite the importance of this island in later pilotage, this monument and the nearby gig-shed provide the only visible evidence for that activity in this part of St Agnes.
Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.
The monument includes two closely-spaced 19th century gig-sheds, named after
the pilot-boats or `gigs' which they housed. The gig-sheds are situated on the
coastal slope bordering the ENE side of Porth Askin, near the southern tip of
St Agnes in the Isles of Scilly.
The gig-sheds are separated by a 2m wide north-south gap, and are situated
parallel to each other on a level area of dune bordering the upper shore of
Porth Askin. They are slightly stepped relative to each other, such that the
northern gig-shed projects 2m WNW of the southern gig-shed.
Each gig-shed is visible as an unroofed, elongated rectangular building
extensively submerged beneath a thick deposit of wind-blown sand. Their walls
each define an internal area measuring 9m WNW-ESE by 2m wide, its long axis
perpendicular to the shoreline at this point. Each gig-shed is open at the WNW
end, directly facing the shore. The walls of the gig-sheds are 0.75m-1m wide,
constructed of undressed granite slabs along each face with a rubble core. The
walls of the northern gig-shed project up to 0.25m above the sand dune. The
southern gig-shed has blown sand banked up to the top of its walling, whose
rubble fabric remains visible along the midline of the resulting sand-ridges,
which rise 0.25m high. The lowermost walling and floors of both gig-sheds are
buried beneath the deep dunes.
In addition to its surviving physical remains, the 1889 edition 6 inch:1 mile
Ordnance Survey map marks three such boathouses on the north east side of
Porth Askin. One of these, which had already become roofless by the date that
map was compiled, may be identified with one of the gig-sheds in this
monument. The walling of another gig-shed, which was shown as roofed on the
1889 map, is located 25m to the north west of this monument, facing onto the
north eastern shore of Porth Askin.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: 15342
Legacy System: RSM
Books and journals
Ratcliffe, J, Lighting up the Past in Scilly, (1986)
consulted 1993, Waters, A., AM 107 for Cornwall SMR entry PRN 7603, (1988)
Title: 1:2500 Ordnance Survey Map; SV 8807 Source Date: 1980 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing