Bowl barrow and a disc barrow in Normanton Gorse, forming part of the Normanton Down round barrow cemetery
- Heritage Category:
- Scheduled Monument
- List Entry Number:
- Date first listed:
- Date of most recent amendment:
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This copy shows the entry on 19-Oct-2019 at 08:56:39.
The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
- Wiltshire (Unitary Authority)
- Wilsford cum Lake
- National Grid Reference:
- SU 11392 41421
Reasons for Designation
A small number of areas in southern England appear to have acted as foci for
ceremonial and ritual activity during the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods.
Two of the best known and earliest recognised areas are around Avebury and
Stonehenge, now jointly designated as a World Heritage Site.
The area of chalk downland which surrounds Stonehenge contains one of the
densest and most varied groups of Neolithic and Bronze Age field monuments in
Britain. Included within the area are Stonehenge itself, the Stonehenge
cursus, the Durrington Walls henge, and a variety of burial monuments, many
grouped into cemeteries.
The area has been the subject of archaeological research since the 18th
century when Stukeley recorded many of the monuments and partially excavated a
number of the burial mounds. More recently, the collection of artefacts from
the surfaces of ploughed fields has supplemented the evidence for ritual and
burial by revealing the intensity of contemporary settlement and land-use. In
view of the importance of the area, all ceremonial and sepulchral monuments of
this period which retain significant archaeological remains are identified as
Round barrow cemeteries date to the Bronze Age (2000-700 BC). They comprise
closely spaced groups of up to 30 round barrows - rubble or earthen mounds
covering single or multiple burials. Most cemeteries developed over a
considerable period of time, often many centuries, and in some cases acted as
a focus for burials as late as the early medieval period. They exhibit
considerable diversity of burial rite, plan and form, frequently including
several different types of round barrow and occasionally associated with
earlier long barrows. Where investigation beyond the round barrows has
occurred, contemporary or later 'flat' burials between the barrow mounds have
often been revealed. Round barrow cemeteries occur across most of lowland
England with a marked concentration in Wessex. In some cases they are
clustered around other important contemporary monuments, as is the case both
here and at Avebury. Often occupying prominent positions, they are a major
historic element in the modern landscape, while their diversity and their
longevity as a monument type provide important information on the variety of
beliefs and social organisation amongst early prehistoric communities.
Disc barrows are funerary monuments dating from 1600-1200 BC. They occur either in isolation or in round barrow cemeteries. Disc barrows were constructed as a circular or oval area of level ground defined by a bank and internal ditch and containing one or more central or eccentrically located small, low mounds, covering burials, usually in pits. The burials are normally cremations and are frequently accompanied by pottery vessels, tools and personal ornaments. Disc barrows are rare nationally with only 250 examples known of which 29 are located within the Stonehenge area.
Bowl barrows, the most numerous form of round barrow, are funerary monuments dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age. They were constructed as earthen or rubble mounds, normally ditched, which covered single or multiple burials. Often superficially similar, although differing widely in size, they exhibit regional variations in form and a variety of burial practices. The burials, either inhumations or cremations, are sometimes accompanied by pottery vessels, tools and personal ornaments. There are over 10,000 surviving bowl barrows recorded nationally and at least 320 in the Stonehenge area.
The disc barrow and bowl barrow in Normanton Gorse form an integral part of the Normanton Down round barrow cemetery, which is an outstanding example of its class. Partial excavation has shown that these two barrows contain archaeological remains and environmental evidence relating to the monument and the landscape in which it was constructed.
The monument includes two round barrows forming part of the Normanton Down
round barrow cemetery, situated in Normanton Gorse. Prior to the establishment
of the plantation the location had extensive views to the south across
Wilsford Down, and to the north across Stonehenge and the Cursus. The
Normanton Down round barrow cemetery consists of 28 round barrows in all,
including 17 bowl barrows, seven disc barrows, three bell barrows and a saucer
barrow. Near the centre of the cemetery is a Neolithic long barrow. This
monument includes one of the bowl barrows and one of the disc barrows.
The mound of the disc barrow is 10m in diameter and 0.4m high. It is
surrounded by a berm 19m wide, a ditch 5m wide and 0.5m deep and an outer
bank 4m wide and 0.6m high, giving an overall diameter of 66m. Located 25m to
the north east is a bowl barrow. Its mound is now difficult to identify on the
ground but is represented on the OS 25inch map of 1901 from which it is
calculated to be 26m in diameter. It is surrounded by a ditch which is also
difficult to identify, but is calculated to be c.2.5m wide, giving an overall
diameter of 31m. Partial excavation of both barrows in the 19th century
revealed that the disc barrow had been previously opened and that the bowl
barrow contained a primary cremation, a bone pin and fragments of an incense
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
- Legacy System number:
- Legacy System:
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing