Roman farmstead and adjacent enclosures 300m east of Rose Hill Farm


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1009982

Date first listed: 15-Dec-1994


Ordnance survey map of Roman farmstead and adjacent enclosures 300m east of Rose Hill Farm
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Norfolk

District: King's Lynn and West Norfolk (District Authority)

Parish: Hilgay

National Grid Reference: TL 63988 98116


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

During the Roman period, particularly during the second century AD, the Fenland silts around the Wash and areas on and close to the margins of the peat fens were extensively and often densely occupied and farmed. Rural settlements were small, comprising individual farmsteads or, more often, groups of several farmsteads organised in small villages which, with their associated field systems, were aligned along droves. Droves also served to link loose clusters of neighbouring settlements in a branching and intersecting network which might extend over several kilometres. The pattern of settlement was determined chiefly by the requirements of stock management and animal husbandry, exploiting pastures on the silts and higher ground, and the summer grazing and winter fodder provided by the adjacent freshwater fens. Although arable agriculture was almost certainly practised also, there was an element of self sufficiency in craft production and in the exploitation of local resources. Each farmstead was normally contained within a rectangular or sub-rectangular enclosure or block of enclosures, demarcated by substantial ditches and including low, thatched buildings of clay and wattle and daub on a light timber frame, with working areas such as farmyard, stockyard, rickyards and gardens alongside. Often the buildings were sited on natural hummocks or on artificially raised platforms. The earliest of such settlements, which are dated to the later first century AD, are generally very small and differ little in general appearance from certain settlements of the preceding Iron Age, although Iron Age settlements in the Fenland region are not so numerous or widespread. During the second century, when small and large-scale engineering projects, including the construction of roads and canals, were carried out widely in the Fens, the size and complexity of the settlements tended to increase and the layout of droves and fields to become more regular. Many were, however, abandoned in the third century AD because of increasing problems of flooding and drainage. Numerous Roman settlements of this type, with their associated field systems, have been recorded in the Fens, particularly through air photography, and they serve to illustrate both the nature of small-scale farming during the period of the Roman occupation and the ways in which a local population adapted to and exploited a particular environment. Many of the sites have, however, been reduced by medieval and later agriculture, and very few remain with upstanding earthworks, with a varied range of identifiable features and/or evidence for the survival of environmental remains. Consequently, all sites which survive as earthworks or which have a varied range of identifiable features are considered to be of national importance.

The farmstead 300m east of Rose Hill Farm includes a variety of different components and is unusual in that the upstanding earthworks survive well, the stack stands being a particularly rare survival in earthwork form. As an earthwork site of this type in West Norfolk, Hilgay is thought to be a unique survival. It will retain a wide range of archaeological information concerning the organisation, development and duration of the farmstead, and evidence for domestic life, farming practices and the local environment will be preserved in deposits in and beneath the building platforms and enclosure banks, in the infill of the ditches, and in soils within the enclosures. The building platforms will also contain evidence for structures.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The monument includes the site of a Roman farmstead, located immediately to the north east of Hilgay island on what was at that time the shelving margin of the peat fen, just south of the modern course of the River Wissey. It is situated in pasture, in which the platforms and ditches which define the rectilinear buildings, yards and paddocks of the farmstead are visible as low earthworks.

At the core of the site, occupying an area of slightly higher ground, are two rectangular enclosures, each with a rectangular, raised platform in the north east corner. The smaller of the two enclosures, to the west of the other, has internal dimensions of c.26m north-south by c.22m east-west, and the second measures c.36m by 76m and contains two small internal enclosures in addition to the raised platform. The two platforms, which are also surrounded by ditches and which supported buildings, are raised between 0.18m and 0.25m above the prevailing ground level and measure 14m by 8m and 17m by 12m respectively. To the south is a complex of several rectangular yards and closes, the smallest of which measures c.23m north-south by c.18m east-west; to the north is another enclosure, larger than the rest, measuring c.50m north-south by 58m east-west internally, and to the east, at a distance of c.18m from the main complex is a detached enclosure, c.18m by 24m, which may have contained another building on the raised surface of its northern half. Two parallel ditches, approximately 26m apart, lead westwards from the site and define the end of a broad drove. On the north east side of the site are two small, roughly circular platforms, c.9m and 4m in diameter respectively, encircled by narrow ditches, and interpreted as stack stands, probably used for drying hay or peat.

The ditches which define all these features are visible as intersecting linear hollows 1m to 4m wide and between 0.15m and 0.3m deep. The smaller of the two enclosures containing building platforms, and the enclosures of similar size immediately to the south of it, have traces, also, of slight internal banks. Sherds of Roman pottery dated to the later third and early fourth centuries AD have been found on the ground surface in the south eastern part of the site and are evidence for the date and character of occupation.

The field gate and all boundary fences are excluded from the scheduling, as are electricity poles on the southern boundary of the field, although the ground beneath these features is included..

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 20819

Legacy System: RSM


Books and journals
Leah, M, Mathews, M, Fenland Evaluation Project: Norfolk, (1990)
Silvester, R J, 'Norfolk Archaeology' in Settlement earthworks at Hilgay, , Vol. 40, (1989), 194-199

End of official listing