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Dunheved Cross, 80m west of Launceston Hospital

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Dunheved Cross, 80m west of Launceston Hospital

List entry Number: 1010855

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Launceston

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 07-Feb-1995

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 26231

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on pilgrimages. Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to remote moorland locations. Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross, in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the `Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed base or show no evidence for a separate base at all. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth- fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

The medieval components of the Dunheved Cross have survived reasonably well; despite the loss of the lower shaft section they show only minor damage from their period of reuse and burial. The unusual elaborate design of the cross head is unique in Cornwall and the monument as a whole shows features of the uncommon later medieval crosses. The monument remains by the original former crossroads marked by the cross base and formerly by the upper shaft, on the route from the south to the market town and administrative centre of Launceston, demonstrating the role of wayside crosses and showing clearly the longevity of many minor roads still in use. The former slighting of this cross, the known history of the shaft's reuse and of the burial of the head and base, together with the monument's subsequent assembly and re-erection, illustrate well the changing religious attitudes since the Reformation.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a wayside cross known as the Dunheved Cross and a protective margin around it, situated beside a minor road next to the main east-west route, the modern A30 road, on the southern outskirts of Launceston in east Cornwall. The Dunheved Cross is visible as an upright granite shaft and head set in a two stepped base. The cross is a composite structure of three medieval cross parts found in the vicinity, together with a modern lower shaft and lower base step. The upper basal step is a medieval cross base originally located at the Badash, or Dunheved, crossroads, 20m north of the monument's present location. The upper shaft of the monument was discovered 400m to the south west at Badash Farm and is considered to have derived from the cross base when complete. The cross head was discovered in a field on Tresmarrow Farm, 1.3km to the WSW. The separate pieces were assembled, with the modern lower shaft and lower base, at the Badash cross-roads in 1902. The resulting cross was re-erected 20m further south to its present site when the Launceston by-pass, the A30 trunk road, was built in 1981. The cross head measures 0.56m high by 0.46m and is 0.12m thick, carved as an unenclosed equal-limbed Latin cross. The cross motif is highly stylised: each of the four limbs terminates with a curved flourish to either side, each flourish forming one side of an incomplete round hole in the limb's quadrants. This gives the head the overall impression of a Celtic cross, with the limbs linked by a ring. The ends of the north east limb and the two flourishes from the lower limb have repaired fractures. The octagonal-section shaft, including the lower modern section, measures 2.28m high, tapering from 0.27m wide at the base to 0.16m wide at the top, where the shaft becomes square in section. The north west face of the shaft has two filled holes. The lower 0.85m of the shaft is modern, replacing the missing section of shaft. The medieval stone base, forming the upper step of the present basal structure, measures 0.8m square and 0.1m high. This base is mounted on a modern granite base, the present lower step, measuring 2.7m long by 1.1m wide. This modern base consists of two rectangular blocks of granite with a grooved and moulded step at either end. The front of this modern base is inscribed `Dunheved Cross'. On the rear edge of the modern base, 0.12m north east of the medieval cross-base, is a stone plaque inscribed `1902 This cross was restored and placed here near to its ancient site to commemorate the Coronation of King Edward Vll'. The cross base was found at the crossroads called Dunheved or Badash Cross, 20m north of the monument, in the 19th century; it was removed and built into a hedge when the roads were widened and was recorded in 1896 by the historian Langdon. At the turn of the century the upper section of monument's shaft was discovered at Badash Farm by a Mr Cowland. In 1896, Langdon also noted the cross head, found close to a hedge in a field near the Alexander Slate Quarry at Tresmarrow and then removed to Launceston museum. The three parts of the monument were assembled together and re-erected near the original site of the Badash Cross on 27 June 1902, to mark the coronation of Edward Vll. In 1974 the cross was removed while the Launceston bypass was built; by 1981 it had been re-erected, 20m to the south in its present location above the southern bank of the new road. The Dunheved Cross is situated beside the modern line of the main medieval route into Cornwall from the River Tamar crossing 2km to the east of Launceston, a major administrative centre and market town during the medieval period. This route is marked at intervals by several other medieval wayside crosses and was later followed by the post-medieval turnpike road and by the modern A30 trunk road. The monument also stands close to the original site of the cross base at the Badash, or Dunheved, crossroads on one of the main routes south out of Launceston. The metalled surface of the modern road passing to the west and north west of the cross base and the surface of the modern footpath to the north east and south west of the cross base but within the area of the protective margin, are excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Langdon, A G, Old Cornish Crosses, (1896)
Langdon, A G, Stone Crosses of North Cornwall, (1992)
Langdon, A G, Old Cornish Crosses, (1896)
Other
consulted 1994, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 2669,
consulted 1994, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 2669.1,
consulted 1994, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 2669.2,
consulted 1994, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 2669.3,
Title: 1:10000 Ordnance Survey Map; SX 38 SW Source Date: 1983 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
Title: 1:2500 Ordnance Survey Map; SX 3383 Source Date: Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

National Grid Reference: SX 33155 83635

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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End of official listing