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Hadrian's Wall and associated features between the boundary east of turret 34a and the field boundary west of milecastle 36 in wall miles 34, 35 and 36

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Hadrian's Wall and associated features between the boundary east of turret 34a and the field boundary west of milecastle 36 in wall miles 34, 35 and 36

List entry Number: 1010964

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Northumberland

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Bardon Mill

County:

District: Northumberland

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Haydon

County:

District: Northumberland

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Simonburn

National Park: NORTHUMBERLAND

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 12-Dec-1928

Date of most recent amendment: 14-Jul-1997

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 26057

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Hadrian's Wall marks one of the frontiers of the Roman Empire. The international importance of the surviving remains has been recognised through designation as a World Heritage Site. The military importance of the Tyne-Solway route across the Pennines was recognised by the Romans during their early campaigns through northern England and into Scotland in the second half of the first century AD. At this time a military road, the Stanegate, was constructed along with a series of forts. Subsequently the Romans largely withdrew from Scotland and there is evidence that the Tyne-Solway route was being recognised as a frontier by the start of the second century AD. This position was consolidated in the early second century by the construction of a substantial frontier work, Hadrian's Wall, under the orders of the Emperor Hadrian. Hadrian's successor, Antoninus Pius, subsequently attempted to establish the boundary further north, between the Clyde and the Firth of Forth, but by c.AD 160 growing unrest amongst the native populations of northern Britain and pressures elsewhere in the Empire caused a retraction back to the Hadrianic line. Hadrian's Wall was then the frontier of the Roman Empire in Britain until c.AD 400 when the Roman armies withdrew from Britain. Stretching over 70 miles from coast to coast, Hadrian's Wall was a continuous barrier built of stone in the east and, initially, of turf in the west. The stone wall was originally designed to be ten Roman feet wide and sections of this width are termed broad wall. A change of plan shortly after construction began led to a reduction in the width of the Wall to eight Roman feet, such sections being termed narrow wall. Today, stretches of both wall types survive, including some sections of narrow wall built on broad wall foundations. For most of its length a substantial ditch on the northern side provided additional defence. Where the Wall crossed rivers, bridges were constructed to carry it across. Construction of the Wall was organised and executed by legionary soldiers. From the beginning the barrier was planned to comprise more than just a curtain wall. At regularly spaced intervals of about a mile along its length lay small walled fortlets known as milecastles. These were attached to the southern side of the Wall and most had a gateway through the Wall to the north. Hence they controlled crossing points through the Wall as well as affording space for a small stable garrison. Between the milecastles were two equally spaced towers known as turrets. Together the milecastles and turrets provided bases from which the curtain wall could be watched and patrolled. Both the turrets and milecastles are thought to have been higher than the Wall itself to provide suitable observation points. It is often assumed that a platform existed on the Wall so that troops could actually patrol along the wall top; it is however far from certain that this was the case. At the western end of the Wall a system of towers, small fortlets and palisade fences extended the frontier system another 30 miles or so down the Cumbrian coast and helped control shipping moving across the estuary of the Solway Firth. As originally planned, and apart from whatever space there was in the milecastles, provision for the accommodation of garrison troops manning the Wall was left with the line of forts which already lay along the Stanegate. At some point a fundamental change of plan took place and forts were constructed along the line of the Wall itself. There are now known to have been 16 forts either attached to the Wall or in close association with it. Some overlay earlier features such as turrets or milecastles. At this stage another linear element, the vallum, was also added to the defensive system to the south of the Wall. This was a broad flat-bottomed ditch flanked by a pair of linear banks. It shadows the course of the Wall for almost all its length, sometimes lying very close to it but sometimes up to a kilometre away from it. The vallum's main function was to act as a barrier to restrict access to the Wall from the south. It also had a function in linking the forts along the Wall with a method of lateral communication. When the forts were placed along the wall line no provision was made for a road to link them. This situation was clearly found impracticable and a metalled track was therefore provided in places along the vallum between the north mound and the ditch. Later, after the withdrawal back to the Hadrianic line from the Antonine Wall, various refurbishments were made throughout the frontier line. At this stage a new linear feature was added: the `Military Way'. This was a road linking all elements of the Wall defence, running from fort to fort within the area bounded by the Wall and the vallum. Throughout its long history the Wall was not always well maintained. It was often neglected and sometimes overrun, but it remained in use until the late fourth century when a weak and divided Roman Empire finally withdrew its armies from the Wall and Britain. It now survives in various states of preservation. In places, especially in the central section, the Stone Wall still remains several courses high and the attached forts, turrets and milecastles are also clearly indentifiable. Earthwork features such as the ditch, vallum and Military Way also survive well in places. Elsewhere the Stone Wall has been virtually robbed out and only its foundations survive beneath the present ground surface. Similarly, stretches of the earthwork remains, including sections of the Turf Wall, have been levelled or infilled and now only survive as buried features. Although some sections of the frontier system no longer survive visibly, sufficient evidence does exist for its position to be fairly accurately identified throughout most of its length.

Hadrian's Wall and its associated features between the field boundary east of turret 34a and the field boundary west of milecastle 36 survive as a series of buried and upstanding remains. Significant information on the development of the frontier system over time will be preserved.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the section of Hadrian's Wall and its associated features between the field boundary east of turret 34a in the east and the field boundary west of milecastle 36 in the west. This section of the Wall occupies the crest and slopes along Sewingshields Crags. The upstanding remains of Hadrian's Wall, the milecastle and turrets are Listed Grade I, from turret 34a to turret 35a. The Wall survives intermittently as an upstanding feature throughout this section. West of milecastle 35 the Wall survives as an irregular turf-covered mound, averaging 2.5m wide and 0.6m high. Either side of milecastle 35 the remains of the Wall are upstanding and have been consolidated. At 2.3m wide it is of narrow wall type, though it has been set on a broad wall foundation, 3m wide. It stands to a maximum height of 1.5m. Along the crest of Sewingshields Crags the upstanding sections of consolidated Wall are divided by sections of the Wall which survive as turf-covered mounds, averaging 2.5m wide and 1m high. Where the Wall changes direction to a north-south alignment it survives as a buried feature beneath a modern field wall made from reused Roman masonry. This field wall overlies the north face of the Wall. The nearly 3km of Wall around Sewing Shields farm is in the care of the Secretary of State. For most of this section there is no outer ditch, as the Wall occupies the crest of the steep outcropping bedrock of Sewingshields Crags and a rock cut ditch would have been superfluous. At Busy Gap a section of ditch was cut which survives as a feature, 12m wide and up to 1.2m deep. West of milecastle 36 another shorter section of ditch was cut, now measuring 2.1m in depth and 10m in width. To the north of the Wall, at the foot of Kings Hill crags is a narrow linear earthwork, up to 7m wide which has been identified as a prehistoric field boundary. Milecastle 35 is located on the east facing slope of Sewingshields Crags. It survives as an upstanding masonry feature which has been consolidated and is now in the care of the Secretary of State. It measures 18.3m north-south by 15.2m east-west. The walls are up to 3.2m in width. Within the milecastle several phases of buildings are preserved in the ground plan. Milecastle 36 occupies the summit of Kings Hill. It survives as a turf-covered feature. The east and west walls are indicated by robber trenches up to 0.5m deep. The featureless interior of the milecastle is overlain by stone which has tumbled onto it from the adjacent Wall. The milecastle was excavated during 1946 and was found to have narrow walls. The north gate had been reconstructed in a post-Hadrianic period, probably around AD 180. The south gate had been destroyed. The well preserved remains of turret 34a, which are in the care of the Secretary of State, are located on an east facing slope. It was located in 1912 by Simpson and was partly excavated during 1947 and 1958. The site was again excavated during 1971 for the Department of the Environment and was shown to measure 3.55m north-south by 3.9m east-west. It had a door in the east side and a possible ladder platform in the south west corner. It has narrow walls measuring 0.95m wide. Most of the pottery recovered from the turret is of second century AD date. In the medieval period the turret walls were partly reduced and the south face of Hadrian's Wall was continued across the turret to make a continuous rampart walk. Medieval pottery sherds, were also found which suggests that the rampart walk was possibly in use at the same time as Sewingshields Castle, which lies about 150m to the north west. The exact location of turret 34b is not known with certainty as there are no surviving upstanding remains. On the basis of the usual spacing, the turret would be expected to be located beneath the Sewing Shields farm complex. Turret 35a is located on the summit of Sewingshields Crags. It survives as an upstanding feature. The masonry has been consolidated and it is in the care of the Secretary of State. The turret was located in 1913. Excavations took place during 1947 and 1958 when it was found to have narrow walls, 1m wide, and a door in the east side, 0.95m wide. The turret was shown to have been abandoned during the Roman period, though it is not certain when. Its internal measurements are 3.7m east-west by 2.4m north-south; the walls are up to 0.75m high. Turret 35b is located to the north of Busy Gap on the west facing slope of Sewingshields Crags. It survives as a slight turf-covered platform measuring 5.5m from north west to south east by 5.5m north east to south west. Its interior is partly overlain by stone which has tumbled onto it from the adjacent Wall. The turret was located during 1913. Part excavation during 1946 showed that the turret had narrow walls and a door in the east side. The course of the Roman road known as the Military Way, which ran along the corridor between the Wall and the vallum linking turrets, milecastles and forts survives as a turf-covered linear mound throughout most of this section. It is visible as a disturbed causeway averaging 5m wide with traces of a stone revetment on the south side. It was partly excavated between 1978 and 1980 when it was shown to have a damaged metalled surface 4m wide, a stone revetment on the south scarp, and to have been overlain by later roadways. Branch roads survive linking the Military Way with the south gates of both milecastles 35 and 36. At milecastle 35 the low, uneven turf-covered mound of the causeway is up to 5.5m wide and 0.2m high. At milecastle 36 the turf- covered causeway is up to 4m wide and 0.3m high. About 20m west of turret 34a a small rectangular enclosure, visible as an upstanding earthwork, abuts the south side of the wall mound. Its internal measurements are 22m east-west by 6.5m north-south. Its walls survive up to 0.4m high and 2.5m wide with the east end apparently being open. No internal features are visible. This structure is probably the remains of a medieval shieling. Shielings were small enclosures used as seasonal stock compounds during upland grazing in the summer months. On the north west side of Busy Gap there are the remains of a triangular shaped enclosure, known as the King's Wicket. It survives as a series of earthworks which include a turf-covered inner mound and traces of an external silted ditch. The enclosure is known to be a later feature which used the Wall line as its east side. It is considered to be early medieval in date and it has been interpreted as a drovers' stock compound, possibly as a gathering point for sheltering stock when they were being driven off the common land and down to the lower pastures. The farm buildings and dwellings at Sewing Shields are totally excluded from the scheduling as the survival of the Wall here has not been confirmed. All field boundaries, except those constructed direcltly on the line of Hadrian's Wall, English Heritage fixtures and fittings and road/track surfaces are excluded from the scheduling, but the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 5 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
'Journal of Roman Studies' in Roman Britain in 1947, , Vol. 38, (1948), 84
Charlesworth, D, 'Archaeologia Aeliana' in A Re-Examination Of Two Turrets On Hadrian's Wall, , Vol. 5 ser, 1, (1973), 99
Haigh, D, Savage, M, 'Archaeologia Aeliana' in Sewingshields, , Vol. 5 ser,12, (1984), 68
Woodfield, C, 'Archaeologia Aeliana' in Six Turrets On Hadrian's Wall, , Vol. 4 ser,43, (1965), 151-161

National Grid Reference: NY 80440 70125

Map

Map
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This copy shows the entry on 24-Nov-2017 at 05:06:13.

End of official listing