Reasons for Designation
Hadrian's Wall marks one of the frontiers of the Roman Empire. The
international importance of the surviving remains has been recognised through
designation as a World Heritage Site.
The military importance of the Tyne-Solway route across the Pennines was
recognised by the Romans during their early campaigns through northern England
and into Scotland in the second half of the first century AD. At this time a
military road, the Stanegate, was constructed along with a series of forts.
Subsequently the Romans largely withdrew from Scotland and there is evidence
that the Tyne-Solway route was being recognised as a frontier by the start of
the second century AD. This position was consolidated in the early second
century by the construction of a substantial frontier work, Hadrian's Wall,
under the orders of the Emperor Hadrian. Hadrian's successor, Antoninus Pius,
subsequently attempted to establish the boundary further north, between the
Clyde and the Firth of Forth, but by c.AD 160 growing unrest amongst the
native populations of northern Britain and pressures elsewhere in the Empire
caused a retraction back to the Hadrianic line. Hadrian's Wall was then the
frontier of the Roman Empire in Britain until c.AD 400 when the Roman armies
withdrew from Britain.
Stretching over 70 miles from coast to coast, Hadrian's Wall was a continuous
barrier built of stone in the east and, initially, of turf in the west. The
stone wall was originally designed to be ten Roman feet wide and sections of
this width are termed broad wall. A change of plan shortly after construction
began led to a reduction in the width of the Wall to eight Roman feet, such
sections being termed narrow wall. Today, stretches of both wall types
survive, including some sections of narrow wall built on broad wall
foundations. For most of its length a substantial ditch on the northern side
provided additional defence. Where the Wall crossed rivers, bridges were
constructed to carry it across. Construction of the Wall was organised and
executed by legionary soldiers. From the beginning the barrier was planned to
comprise more than just a curtain wall. At regularly spaced intervals of about
a mile along its length lay small walled fortlets known as milecastles. These
were attached to the southern side of the Wall and most had a gateway through
the Wall to the north. Hence they controlled crossing points through the Wall
as well as affording space for a small stable garrison. Between the
milecastles were two equally spaced towers known as turrets. Together the
milecastles and turrets provided bases from which the curtain wall could be
watched and patrolled. Both the turrets and milecastles are thought to have
been higher than the Wall itself to provide suitable observation points. It is
often assumed that a platform existed on the Wall so that troops could
actually patrol along the wall top; it is however far from certain that this
was the case.
At the western end of the Wall a system of towers, small fortlets and palisade
fences extended the frontier system another 30 miles or so down the Cumbrian
coast and helped control shipping moving across the estuary of the Solway
As originally planned, and apart from whatever space there was in the
milecastles, provision for the accommodation of garrison troops manning the
Wall was left with the line of forts which already lay along the Stanegate. At
some point a fundamental change of plan took place and forts were constructed
along the line of the Wall itself. There are now known to have been 16 forts
either attached to the Wall or in close association with it. Some overlay
earlier features such as turrets or milecastles. At this stage another linear
element, the vallum, was also added to the defensive system to the south of
the Wall. This was a broad flat-bottomed ditch flanked by a pair of linear
banks. It shadows the course of the Wall for almost all its length, sometimes
lying very close to it but sometimes up to a kilometre away from it. The
vallum's main function was to act as a barrier to restrict access to the Wall
from the south. It also had a function in linking the forts along the Wall
with a method of lateral communication. When the forts were placed along the
wall line no provision was made for a road to link them. This situation was
clearly found impracticable and a metalled track was therefore provided in
places along the vallum between the north mound and the ditch.
Later, after the withdrawal back to the Hadrianic line from the Antonine Wall,
various refurbishments were made throughout the frontier line. At this stage a
new linear feature was added: the `Military Way'. This was a road linking all
elements of the Wall defence, running from fort to fort within the area
bounded by the Wall and the vallum.
Throughout its long history the Wall was not always well maintained. It was
often neglected and sometimes overrun, but it remained in use until the late
fourth century when a weak and divided Roman Empire finally withdrew its
armies from the Wall and Britain.
It now survives in various states of preservation. In places, especially in
the central section, the Stone Wall still remains several courses high and the
attached forts, turrets and milecastles are also clearly indentifiable.
Earthwork features such as the ditch, vallum and Military Way also survive
well in places. Elsewhere the Stone Wall has been virtually robbed out and
only its foundations survive beneath the present ground surface. Similarly,
stretches of the earthwork remains, including sections of the Turf Wall, have
been levelled or infilled and now only survive as buried features. Although
some sections of the frontier system no longer survive visibly, sufficient
evidence does exist for its position to be fairly accurately identified
throughout most of its length.
Hadrian's Wall and vallum and their associated features between the road to
Caw Gap and the Caw Burn survive well as a series of buried and upstanding
remains. Significant information on the development of the frontier system
over time will be preserved.
The monument includes the section of Hadrian's Wall and vallum and their
associated features between the road to Caw Gap in the east and the Caw Burn
in the west.
All the upstanding remains of Hadrian's Wall, the milecastle and turrets in
this scheduling are Listed Grade I.
Hadrian's Wall runs along the crest of Cawfields Crags in this section and
commands wide views to the north, south and west. The Wall survives well as an
upstanding feature throughout the whole of this section, except for where it
has been destroyed by Cawfields Quarry in the west. A number of changes in the
thickness of the Wall are evidenced as offsets along this section. These may
be the product of separate work gangs building up to each other. The Wall is
consolidated for 1240m and averages 1.8m to 2.3m in width and 1.2m to
1.6m in height. It reaches a maximum height of 2.8m near Thorny Doors where it
is 12 courses high. Both the north and south face are almost complete with
only occasional gaps in the outer face. The Wall in this section is in the
care of the Secretary of State. The wall ditch was only constructed in the
areas between the crags which otherwise make a ditch superfluous. Where extant
the ditch survives on the ground as an earthwork measuring between 1.1m and
2.8m in depth. The ditch upcast mound, usually referred to as the `glacis',
also survives to the north of the ditch averaging 10.5m in width.
Milecastle 42, or Cawfields, is situated on the crest of Cawfields Crags at
the west end and commands wide views in all directions. It survives well as an
upstanding stone feature which has been consolidated and is in the care of the
Secretary of State. The milecastle straddles a steep south facing slope, 8m to
10m south of the steep north facing crags, and overlooks Hole Gap to the west.
The internal dimensions of this milecastle are 17.8m east to west by 14.4m
north to south. The walls are 2.8m thick and average 1.4m high. Both gateways
of the milecastle are built in massive masonry. Excavations by Clayton in
1848 produced amongst other finds two inscribed stones, one an inscription
dedicated to Hadrian and the other a reused tombstone. Further excavations by
Simpson took place in 1936.
Turret 41a is located on the west side of Caw Gap with views to the north and
south. It survives as an upstanding stone feature which has been consolidated
and is in the care of the Secretary of State. Excavation by Simpson in 1912
located the doorway in the east side of the south wall. It had been dismantled
and the Wall built across it during the reign of the Roman emperor Severus.
Charlesworth's excavations in 1967 confirmed the deliberate dismantling of the
turret and the rebuilding of the Wall across its recess.
Turret 41b is situated on Cawfield Crags west of Thorny Doors. It survives as
a buried feature. It was located and excavated in 1912 by Simpson. The turret
is included as part of the Wall in the care of the Secretary of State.
Turret 42a was located at the west end of Cawfields Crags near to the Caw
Burn. However, the large quarry has destroyed the section of Wall, including
turret 42a, between Hole Gap and the Caw Burn. The former course of the Wall
and position of the turret in this area is however known from the first
edition Ordnance Survey map.
The course of the Roman road known as the Military Way, which ran along the
corridor between the Wall and the vallum linking the turrets, milecastles and
forts is known throughout this section except around Cawfields Quarry where
its precise course has not yet been confirmed. It survives as a linear
causeway which is most prominent at the east end of this section. Here it
measures between 3.5m and 5.2m wide with a revetment containing large stones
on the south side and with evidence of a stone kerb. Further west the
causeway, where extant, averages about 0.1m in height and 7m in width. Where
there is no trace of the causeway the line of the road has been identified by
changes in vegetation growth with grass growing less well above the former
road surface. Around Cawfields Quarry the remains of the Military Way may have
been destroyed by the quarry, however it is possible that here the Military
Way was built on the line of the vallum, as it was further to the east at the
crossing site of the Caw Burn and thus survives.
About 200m east of milecastle 42 and 10m to the south of the Military Way is a
fallen Roman milestone. It measures 1.38m high by 0.4m by 0.3m. It is oblong
in shape and crudely rounded at the corners. This uninscribed milestone now
lies in long grass. Two other milestones from this vicinity have been removed
and are now in Chesters museum.
The vallum survives very well in this section as an upstanding turf-covered
earthwork. It follows a straight course all through this section. The ditch
averages 3m deep with a maximum depth of 3.8m in places. The north and south
mounds average 2m in height with a maximum of 2.8m in places. They still
follow a very straight course and can be seen to include large boulders in
their make up. This is one of the best preserved continuous stretches of
The remains of a Roman watermill are situated on the east bank of the Caw Burn
to the south of the Military Way. It is now covered by the Cawfields Quarry
spoil heap and as a result there are no visible remains. Excavation by Simpson
in 1907-8 showed that an artificial wood-lined channel had been cut across a
bend in the stream and a weir constructed to direct water into it. A
rectangular stone building measuring 7m by 4.8m was situated above the channel
with its north west wall forming one side of the widened channel. Millstones
and pottery were recovered during the excavation which allowed this undershot
water mill to be dated to the third century AD. The millstones are now in
Chesters museum. The whole complex was surrounded on three sides by a rampart
and ditch. It was probably associated with the fort 750m to the west at Great
All field boundaries, stiles, track and road surfaces, and English Heritage
fixtures and fittings are excluded from the scheduling, but the ground beneath
all these features is included.
The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.