Hadrian's Wall and vallum between Birky Lane at Walby and the east side of the M6 in wall miles 62 and 63
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1010980
Date first listed: 12-Dec-1928
Date of most recent amendment: 14-Jul-1997
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: Carlisle (District Authority)
Parish: Stanwix Rural
National Grid Reference: NY 42812 59342
Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.
Reasons for Designation
Hadrian's Wall marks one of the frontiers of the Roman Empire. The
international importance of the surviving remains has been recognised through
designation as a World Heritage Site.
The military importance of the Tyne-Solway route across the Pennines was
recognised by the Romans during their early campaigns through northern England
and into Scotland in the second half of the first century AD. At this time a
military road, the Stanegate, was constructed along with a series of forts.
Subsequently the Romans largely withdrew from Scotland and there is evidence
that the Tyne-Solway route was being recognised as a frontier by the start of
the second century AD. This position was consolidated in the early second
century by the construction of a substantial frontier work, Hadrian's Wall,
under the orders of the Emperor Hadrian. Hadrian's successor, Antoninus Pius,
subsequently attempted to establish the boundary further north, between the
Clyde and the Firth of Forth, but by c.AD 160 growing unrest amongst the
native populations of northern Britain and pressures elsewhere in the Empire
caused a retraction back to the Hadrianic line. Hadrian's Wall was then the
frontier of the Roman Empire in Britain until c.AD 400 when the Roman armies
withdrew from Britain.
Stretching over 70 miles from coast to coast, Hadrian's Wall was a continuous
barrier built of stone in the east and, initially, of turf in the west. The
stone wall was originally designed to be ten Roman feet wide and sections of
this width are termed broad wall. A change of plan shortly after construction
began led to a reduction in the width of the Wall to eight Roman feet, such
sections being termed narrow wall. Today, stretches of both wall types
survive, including some sections of narrow wall built on broad wall
foundations. For most of its length a substantial ditch on the northern side
provided additional defence. Where the Wall crossed rivers, bridges were
constructed to carry it across. Construction of the Wall was organised and
executed by legionary soldiers. From the beginning the barrier was planned to
comprise more than just a curtain wall. At regularly spaced intervals of about
a mile along its length lay small walled fortlets known as milecastles. These
were attached to the southern side of the Wall and most had a gateway through
the Wall to the north. Hence they controlled crossing points through the Wall
as well as affording space for a small stable garrison. Between the
milecastles were two equally spaced towers known as turrets. Together the
milecastles and turrets provided bases from which the curtain wall could be
watched and patrolled. Both the turrets and milecastles are thought to have
been higher than the Wall itself to provide suitable observation points. It is
often assumed that a platform existed on the Wall so that troops could
actually patrol along the wall top; it is however far from certain that this
was the case.
At the western end of the Wall a system of towers, small fortlets and palisade
fences extended the frontier system another 30 miles or so down the Cumbrian
coast and helped control shipping moving across the estuary of the Solway
As originally planned, and apart from whatever space there was in the
milecastles, provision for the accommodation of garrison troops manning the
Wall was left with the line of forts which already lay along the Stanegate. At
some point a fundamental change of plan took place and forts were constructed
along the line of the Wall itself. There are now known to have been 16 forts
either attached to the Wall or in close association with it. Some overlay
earlier features such as turrets or milecastles. At this stage another linear
element, the vallum, was also added to the defensive system to the south of
the Wall. This was a broad flat-bottomed ditch flanked by a pair of linear
banks. It shadows the course of the Wall for almost all its length, sometimes
lying very close to it but sometimes up to a kilometre away from it. The
vallum's main function was to act as a barrier to restrict access to the Wall
from the south. It also had a function in linking the forts along the Wall
with a method of lateral communication. When the forts were placed along the
wall line no provision was made for a road to link them. This situation was
clearly found impracticable and a metalled track was therefore provided in
places along the vallum between the north mound and the ditch.
Later, after the withdrawal back to the Hadrianic line from the Antonine Wall,
various refurbishments were made throughout the frontier line. At this stage a
new linear feature was added: the `Military Way'. This was a road linking all
elements of the Wall defence, running from fort to fort within the area
bounded by the Wall and the vallum.
Throughout its long history the Wall was not always well maintained. It was
often neglected and sometimes overrun, but it remained in use until the late
fourth century when a weak and divided Roman Empire finally withdrew its
armies from the Wall and Britain.
It now survives in various states of preservation. In places, especially in
the central section, the Stone Wall still remains several courses high and the
attached forts, turrets and milecastles are also clearly indentifiable.
Earthwork features such as the ditch, vallum and Military Way also survive
well in places. Elsewhere the Stone Wall has been virtually robbed out and
only its foundations survive beneath the present ground surface. Similarly,
stretches of the earthwork remains, including sections of the Turf Wall, have
been levelled or infilled and now only survive as buried features. Although
some sections of the frontier system no longer survive visibly, sufficient
evidence does exist for its position to be fairly accurately identified
throughout most of its length.
Hadrian's Wall and vallum and their associated features between Birky Lane at Walby and the M6 survive well as a series of buried and upstanding remains. Significant information on the development of the frontier system over time will be preserved.
Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.
The monument includes the section of Hadrian's Wall and vallum and their
associated features between the west side of Birky Lane at Walby in the east
and the east side of the M6 motorway in the west.
Hadrian's Wall survives as a buried feature throughout this section with no
remains visible above ground except for a low amorphous turf covered mound at
Brunstock Park. However, a geophysical survey in 1981 and trial excavations by
the Cumbria and Lancashire Archaeological Unit in 1989 have confirmed the
course of the Wall at various points along this section. The wall ditch
survives intermittently as an upstanding earthwork in this section. At
Brunstock Park the ditch is 8m-9m wide and 1.2m deep. It is cut in the east by
a tractor crossing. Excavations were carried out here by Haverfield in 1894.
Approximately 120m west of Walby Hall excavations by Goodburn in advance of
the laying of a gas pipeline in 1975 encountered the ditch which measured
10.5m wide and 3.7m deep. Elsewhere the ditch is silted up but can be traced
as a very faint depression in the fields, 0.15m deep. A geophysical survey in
1981 has shown that the wall ditch runs fractionally north west of its mapped
line in two transects east of the electricity pylon line.
Milecastle 63 probably survives as a buried feature. A geophysical survey in
1981 produced strong indications that it was located at a position WNW of the
ninety degree bend in Birky Lane south of the poultry houses. The site has not
been excavated so this location has not yet been confirmed to be that of
The exact locations of turrets 62a, 62b, 63a and 63b have not yet been
confirmed. They are expected to be located at the usual spacings between the
milecastles, approximately 500m apart.
The position of the Roman road known as the Military Way, which ran along the
corridor between the Wall and the vallum linking turrets, milecastles and
forts, has not yet been confirmed throughout this section. The only part of it
which is known is a short section found during excavation by Haverfield in
1894 approximately 80m west of the minor road between Houghton Hall and the
B6264 road, 40m south of the extant wall ditch. The excavation revealed a
denuded road, 6.5m wide, flanked by small side ditches. Elsewhere its remains
survive as buried features.
The vallum survives as slight earthwork visible on the ground in Brunstock
Park. The broad line of the ditch averages 0.4m deep and the ploughed down
north and south mounds stand 0.2m high. Excavation of part of the vallum was
carried out here by Haverfield in 1894. Elsewhere in this section its remains
survive as buried features with no remains visible above ground. However, its
course has been confirmed through geophysical survey in 1981 and in 1991. The
various transects show that between Walby and the `pinch' where the Wall and
vallum are closest, the actual course of the vallum lies slightly to the
north of where the course is depicted on Ordnance Survey maps. Excavations by
Goodburn in 1975 in advance of the laying of a gas pipeline south west of
Walby Hall located the vallum ditch 36m to the north of the line shown on the
Ordnance Survey maps.
All field boundaries, the electricity pylon and road and track surfaces within
the area of the monument are excluded from the scheduling, but the ground
beneath all these features is included.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: 26088
Legacy System: RSM
Books and journals
Geophysical Surveys of Bradford, , Report on Geophysical Survey: Hadrian's Wall, (1991)
Goodburn, R, 'Britannia' in Roman Britain in 1975, , Vol. 7, (1976), 310
Haverfield, F, 'TCWAAS' in Report of the Cumberland Excavation Committee 1894, (1895), 453-466
Haverfield, F, 'TCWAAS' in Report of the Cumberland Excavation Committee 1894, (1895), 459
Cumbria and Lancashire Archaeological Unit, Proposed Ethylene Pipeline, Grangemouth to Stanlow..., 1989, private unpubl/d report for Shell UK
Geophysics 24/1981 unpublished, Gater, J, Ancient Monuments Laboratory Report 3508, (1981)
Geophysics 24/1981, Gater, J, Ancient Monuments Laboratory Report 350B, (1981)
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing