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Boddington Camp: a slight univallate hillfort on the summit of Boddington Hill

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Boddington Camp: a slight univallate hillfort on the summit of Boddington Hill

List entry Number: 1011304

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Buckinghamshire

District: Aylesbury Vale

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Halton

County: Buckinghamshire

District: Aylesbury Vale

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Wendover

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 17-Jul-1963

Date of most recent amendment: 08-Dec-1993

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 19085

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Slight univallate hillforts are defined as enclosures of various shapes, generally between 1ha and 10ha in size, situated on or close to hilltops and defined by a single line of earthworks, the scale of which is relatively small. They date to between the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age (eighth - fifth centuries BC), the majority being used for between 150 and 200 years prior to their abandonment or reconstruction. Slight univallate hillforts have generally been interpreted as stock enclosures, redistribution centres, places of refuge and permanent settlements. The earthworks generally include a rampart, narrow level berm, external ditch and counterscarp bank, while access to the interior is usually provided by two entrances comprising either simple gaps in the earthwork or an inturned rampart. Postholes revealed by excavation indicate the occasional presence of portal gateways while more elaborate features like overlapping ramparts and outworks are limited to only a few examples. Internal features include square or rectangular buildings supported by four to six postholes and interpreted as raised granaries, timber or stone round houses, large storage pits and hearths as well as scattered postholes, stakeholes and gullies. Slight univallate hillforts are rare with around 150 examples recorded nationally. Although on a national scale the number is low, in Devon they comprise one of the major classes of hillfort. In other areas where the distribution is relatively dense, for example, Wessex, Sussex, the Cotswolds and the Chilterns, hillforts belonging to a number of different classes occur within the same region. Examples are also recorded in eastern England, the Welsh Marches, central and southern England. In view of the rarity of slight univallate hillforts and their importance in understanding the transition between Bronze Age and Iron Age communities, all examples which survive comparatively well and have potential for the recovery of further archaeological remains are believed to be of national importance.

The slight univallate hillfort on Boddington Hill survives well despite some evidence of disturbance and is a good example of its class. The interior, although heavily afforested, has been demonstrated as containing archaeological evidence relating to the occupation of the site. Similarly, the perimeter defences will contain archaeological evidence both of the structure of the original defences and of the date of occupation. The latter has been demonstrated by finds of diagnostic material from a section cut across the defences in the south-west corner of the site. It is also likely that environmental evidence relating to the landscape in which the monument was constructed and to the economy of its inhabitants will survive in the ditch fills and sealed beneath the various banks.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a univallate hillfort occupying the summit of a steep sided chalk spur. The hillfort is oval in shape, measuring overall some 500m long by 220m wide, and has an internal area of some 6ha. It lies with its long axis along the hilltop orientated north-east to south-west. The defences run roughly around the 240m contour and comprise a single rampart and outer ditch. The defences are strongest around the south and east where the outer ditch is up to 1.6m deep and the outer scarp of the rampart up to 3.4m above the ditch bottom on its outer side and 1.7m high on its inner side. In places along this south-east side there are the remains of an outer or counterscarp bank which runs along the edge of the ditch; this averages 5m wide and 0.4m high. The defences become confused towards the north-east end of the hillfort as the result of later quarrying but their course can still be followed except where they have been destroyed in the northern corner of the enclosure. This position is almost certainly the site of the original hillfort entrance but today nothing of this can be recognised. This northern part has suffered considerable disturbance from occupation of the site by Calloway or Peacock Farm which stood in this vicinity until its demolition in the 1950s. Surface irregularities, along with tile and brick waste scattered on the surface here, relate to this phase of occupation. Around the north-western side of the hillfort the outer ditch has been overlain by a modern terraced forestry track. However the main rampart survives as a single well defined scarp averaging 2.6m high. Some 200m south along its length the rampart becomes stronger rising to an average height of 3.6m and an inner bank once more becomes recognisable, averaging 0.6m high. A modern entrance gap 5m wide has been cut through the rampart some 30m south of the commencement of this inner bank. The last 120m of this length of the rampart has an inner ditch 5m wide and 0.8m deep which probably served as the quarry for the inner bank. The outer ditch remains buried beneath the modern forestry track throughout the complete length of this western side. At the extreme south-western corner of the hillfort the outer rampart is lowered to form an entrance ramp which could be a second original approach to the interior of the fort. There is no outer ditch at this position, the ditch commencing some 40m to the east. Whether the ditch was originally intended to end short of this ramp or whether it has been subsequently infilled is unclear. The interior of the hillfort is today heavily afforested. Finds from the interior of the fort have in the past included fragments of Iron Age pottery, an ingot, part of a bronze dagger, a flint scraper and a spindle whorl. A section excavated through the rampart in the area of the southern entrance revealed fragments of pottery indicating occupation of the site during the 1st-2nd centuries BC. A series of lesser modern banks associated with the modern farm enclosure can be identified running inside and parallel to the prehistoric earthworks. A large circular concrete reservoir 33m in diameter lies approximately central to the site. The concrete reservoir, along with all modern boundary features, structures and metalled surfaces are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Other
Conversation owners,
NAR Card no 1645,

National Grid Reference: SP 88228 07981

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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This copy shows the entry on 24-Nov-2017 at 12:23:37.

End of official listing