- Heritage Category:
- Scheduled Monument
- List Entry Number:
- Date first listed:
- Date of most recent amendment:
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This copy shows the entry on 31-Mar-2020 at 09:09:50.
The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
- Northumberland (Unitary Authority)
- National Grid Reference:
- NY 88239 75734
Reasons for Designation
Tower houses are a type of defensible house particularly characteristic of the
borderlands of England and Scotland. Virtually every parish had at least one
of these buildings. Solitary tower houses comprise a single square or
rectangular `keep' several storeys high, with strong barrel-vaults tying
together massive outer walls. Many towers had stone slab roofs, often with a
parapet walk. Access could be gained through a ground floor entrance or at
first floor level where a doorway would lead directly to a first floor hall.
Solitary towers were normally accompanied by a small outer enclosure defined
by a timber or stone wall and called a barmkin. Tower houses were being
constructed and used from at least the 13th century to the end of the 16th
century. They provided prestigious defended houses permanently occupied by
the wealthier and aristocratic members of society. As such, they were
important centres of medieval life. The need for such secure buildings
relates to the unsettled and frequently war-like conditions which prevailed in
the Borders throughout much of the medieval period. Around 200 examples of
tower houses have been identified of which less than half are of the free-
standing or solitary tower type. All surviving solitary towers retaining
significant medieval remains will normally be identified as nationally
Chipchase Tower is widely regarded as one of the best preserved towers in Northumberland. It survives in its early 14th-century state and, although partially restored, it represents an example of exceptional architectural and archaeological importance.
The monument includes an exceptionally well preserved tower house situated on
a gently sloping area of ground on the left bank of the River North Tyne. It
is adjacent to the manor house known as Chipchase Castle which was added to
the tower in the early 17th century. The mid-fourteenth-century tower is
rectangular in shape and rises three storeys above a vaulted basement, with a
watch turret attached to each corner, and joined by a parapet walk.
Externally, the tower measures 15.7m north-south by 10.4m east-west and is
15.5m high to the top of the turrets. An entrance lobby, housing a circular
staircase giving access to the upper storeys and the parapet walk, is attached
to its east side. The main entrance still retains the original wooden
portcullis, operated from a small room on the first floor. The vaulted
basement is strong, with walls 2.6m thick and no windows. Each subsequent
floor consists of a single large room with a variety of small chambers leading
off it into the thickness of the walls. The first floor room has small windows
on the south and east sides and a small fireplace in the west wall, with the
portcullis room at the south-eastern corner. The second floor room has larger
windows in the south and east sides and a large fireplace in the west wall.
Among the subsidiary chambers on this floor there is an L-shaped chapel
situated on the east side. The third floor contains the largest and most
lavish room: lit by four windows, it has a large fireplace in the west wall
and several features of architectural note. Subsidiary rooms on this floor
include a kitchen. The tower is a Grade I listed building, as is the attached
later house. The early 17th-century manor house is attached to the tower on
its east side and an early 19th-century range of buildings is attached to the
north-eastern corner of the tower. Neither of these later additions is
included in the scheduling.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
- Legacy System number:
- Legacy System:
Books and journals
Knowles, W H, 'History of Northumberland' in Chipchase Tower, , Vol. IV, (1897), 333-337
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing