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Bretby Castle fortified manor

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Bretby Castle fortified manor

List entry Number: 1011443

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Derbyshire

District: South Derbyshire

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Bretby

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 15-Feb-1982

Date of most recent amendment: 13-Apr-1994

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 23306

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Fortified manors were the residences of the lesser nobility and richer burgesses and date from the late 12th century and throughout the rest of the Middle Ages. Generally they comprise a hall and residential wing, domestic ranges, and fortifications such as a moat or crenellated wall or both. The site at Bretby is relatively typical in that it is a large and complex site which remained occupied until the 17th century and therefore retains archaeological remains of buildings and structures of all periods over a very wide area. It is an exceptionally well documented site with important historical associations.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the core area of the site of Bretby Castle fortified manor and incorporates manorial remains dating from the 13th to the 17th centuries. The visible remains, which occupy a sub-rectangular enclosure of c.3.5 ha, are those of the 16th century manor partially excavated in 1800. The remains of earlier buildings and structures will survive as buried features beneath the earthwork remains of later buildings. The visible remains include, on the west and north sides, a massive outer bank measuring up to 5m high. This bank is flanked on the inside by a ditch-like feature which has, in the past, been inaccurately termed a moat. Although it undoubtedly served as a boundary feature and may have had different functions at different times, in its present form the feature has been reinterpreted as a sunken driveway. This is in part due to the presence of two gateways visible at its southern end. One of these leads southward towards Bretby Park and the other westward towards Home Farm. Although the present day Home Farm was not built until the early 19th century, it is believed to stand on the site of earlier farmsteads belonging to the fortified manor. On the inside, the sunken driveway is flanked by the remains of buildings which reveal that the 16th century manor was built round two courtyards. Although partly masked by numerous mounds of excavation spoil, the layout can be seen to have included a large court to the north and another to the south. Along the south-east edge of the latter, adjacent to the south gate, are the well preserved foundations of three rectangular buildings. These are each roughly 40m long by 15m wide and were previously thought to be fishponds. In fact, there is no evidence for this and several factors, including the lack of a water supply, make it unfeasible. One example includes a 2m deep cellar and two exhibit evidence of opposing doorways. It is therefore likely that they were ancillary or service buildings. These three features previously thought to be fishponds are excluded from the scheduling. Alongside them to the north- east is a level area interpreted as a small yard or, alternatively, a kitchen garden. Additional features lie to the north of this. Formerly, the manor site would also have extended further to the north-east. However, although further remains, including those of a chapel, will survive beneath modern development in this area, they are not included in the scheduling as their extent and state of survival is not sufficiently understood. Originally a berewick or outlier of Newton Manor, Bretby became a separate manor in the 13th century when it was granted by Ranulf, Earl of Chester, to Stephen de Segrave who, amongst other attributes, was Justiciar of England between 1232 and 1234 and once acted as joint regent for Henry III during the king's absence. It may have been he who built the first manor house. In 1300, Edward I granted Stephen's great-grandson John Segrave licence to crenellate, that is fortify the manor house at Bretby. This may have been the origin of the massive outer earthworks which would have been surmounted by a castellated wall. John Segrave had a distinguished career as a royal servant, including in 1302 being made constable of Berwick Castle and the king's lieutenant on the Border and in occupied Scotland. However, during the civil strife between the factions of Edward II and his queen, Isabella, the Segraves incurred royal displeasure and John and his sons were despatched to serve in Gascony and Aquitaine where John and his heir, Stephen, died. Stephen's son, John, inherited the Segrave lands which then passed to his daughter after his own death in 1352, and from there, by marriage, to the Mowbray and Berkley families. The Bretby estate was purchased by Philip Stanhope in 1610 and the manor house subsequently demolished, reputedly to provide building materials to build a mansion house in the new Bretby Park. The house known as Castlefield, all modern boundary fences and gates, and a stable are all excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
The Victoria History of the County of Derby: Volume I, (1905)
Craven, M, Stanley, M, The Derbyshire Country House, (1982)
Other
Craven, D. and Drage, C., Moated Sites List, 1982, SMR
On EH file, Sinar, Joan, Bretby (historical notes),
On EH file, Staples, David, Bretby: Proposed Conservation Area (historical notes),

National Grid Reference: SK 29359 23169

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1011443 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 19-Nov-2017 at 08:59:58.

End of official listing