Romano-British farmstead 750m NNE of Quarry House


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1011553

Date first listed: 01-Aug-1961

Date of most recent amendment: 04-Nov-1993


Ordnance survey map of Romano-British farmstead 750m NNE of Quarry House
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Northumberland (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Bavington

National Grid Reference: NY 96588 80561


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

The farmstead NNE of Quarry House is very well preserved and retains significant archaeological deposits. It is one of a group of similar settlements in the area and will contribute to any study of the settlement pattern at this time.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The monument includes the remains of a farmstead of Romano-British date situated at the foot of a slope on the west side of the Throckrington Burn valley. The farmstead, sub-rectangular in shape, measures a maximum of 45m east-west by 58m north-south within double ramparts and a ditch. The inner bank is 5m wide and stands to an average height of 1m. Outside the bank there is a broad ditch 7m wide on the north, south and eastern sides; on the western side the ditch broadens to 12m and this is thought to represent the site of an earlier ditched enclosure. The outer bank is 5m wide and stands to a height of 1.5m above the bottom of the ditch. There is an entrance, 6m wide, in the centre of the eastern side of the enclosure which is carried across the ditch on a causeway. Within the enclosure there are the stone foundations of at least three circular houses, on average 7m in diameter, with walls standing to a height of 0.2m. A fourth hut circle was excavated in 1886 and a single piece of Roman pottery was discovered. Traces of two sunken yards associated with the houses are visible at the southern end of the monument. Given the unusual double banked form of this monument it is possible that more than one phase of activity is represented by the remains.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 21029

Legacy System: RSM


Books and journals
Jobey, G, A Field Guide to Prehistoric Northumberland part 2, (1974), 36
Hedley, R C, 'Archaeologia Aeliana 2 ser 12' in Archaeologia Aeliana 2 ser 12, (1887), 155-8
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana 4 ser 38' in Rectlinear Settlements of the Roman Period in Northumberland, (1960), 36

End of official listing