Romano-British farmstead 800m north-east of High House


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1011595

Date first listed: 08-Dec-1938

Date of most recent amendment: 01-Sep-1993


Ordnance survey map of Romano-British farmstead 800m north-east of High House
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Eden (District Authority)

Parish: Bampton

National Park: LAKE DISTRICT

National Grid Reference: NY 48932 15424


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

This monument is a typical example of a Romano-British farmstead.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The monument is a Romano-British farmstead presently submerged beneath Haweswater Reservoir. Survey work undertaken by the RCHME during the 1930's indicates that the site includes two roughly rhomboidal enclosures. The southern one has maximum internal dimensions of 19m by 28m and is surrounded by a slight rampart up to 3m wide. This rampart terminates at its north-west end in a low circular mound approximately 6.5m in diameter. Immediately to the east of this mound is an entrance to the enclosure. The northern enclosure has maximum internal dimensions of 38m by 28m. It abuts the southerly enclosure and is divided from it by a rampart 3m wide which turns north-west immediately east of the entrance to the southerly enclosure to form the western defences. On the north there are no apparent defences, the enclosure terminating in an inward sloping scarp which takes the form of a rampart at the north-east end only. The eastern side has no apparent protection other than a short but steep scarp, in the face of which are two hut circles 5m in diameter. A small rectangular platform measuring 6.5m by 6m abuts the external angle formed by the ramparts of the two enclosures.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 22550

Legacy System: RSM


Ebbatson,L., MPP Single Mon Class Descriptions - Romano-British Farmsteads, (1989)
RCHME, Westmorland, (1936)

End of official listing