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Howarcles Romano-British settlement

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Howarcles Romano-British settlement

List entry Number: 1011625

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Eden

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Crosby Ravensworth

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 24-Oct-1938

Date of most recent amendment: 16-Feb-1994

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 22460

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

Howarcles is a good example of a small Romano-British native settlement with attached fields and enclosures. Its earthworks survive well and preserve much detail of the layout of the settlement. It is one of a group of similar settlements at the head of the Lyvennet valley and will contribute to any study of Romano-British settlement patterns in this area.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument is Howarcles Romano-British settlement, one of a number of such sites surrounding the head of the Lyvennet valley. The site occupies a sloping shelf on the west-facing hillside and includes turf-covered stone walls up to 1m high which enclose a series of rectangular and curvilinear fields containing smaller enclosures that were stock pens. The site is divided into two by a trackway which runs north-south along a terrace. The main block of the settlement lies to the east of this trackway and includes a large sub- circular enclosure 20m in diameter interpreted as the remains of a large round house. To the west of this trackway is a small block of enclosures including the remains of a much smaller round house, this one having a diameter of 9m. The site would have been in use during the Roman conquest of the north. It lies within an area once occupied by the Carvetii tribe. All modern field boundaries and gateposts are excluded from the scheduling, but the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Higham, N, Jones, B, The Carvetti, (1985), 132-3
Higham, N, The Northern Counties to AD 1000, (1986), 192
Alcock, L, 'Archaeologia Cambrensis' in Gwyr Y Gogledd, , Vol. CXXXII, (1983), 4
Collingwood, R G, 'Trans Cumb & West Ant & Arch Soc. New Ser.' in Prehistoric Settlements Near Crosby Ravensworth, , Vol. XXXIII, (1936), 216
Other
Ebbatson,L., MPP Single Mon Class Descriptions - Romano-British Farmsteads, (1989)

National Grid Reference: NY 62721 13163

Map

Map
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1011625 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 24-Nov-2017 at 05:13:30.

End of official listing