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Standing cross at Emley

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Standing cross at Emley

List entry Number: 1011849

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Kirklees

District Type: Metropolitan Authority

Parish: Denby Dale

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 26-Jul-1995

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 23379

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone, mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD). Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the scenes of games or recreational activity. Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the 13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base, buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their original location, are considered worthy of protection.

Although not complete, the Emley cross appears to be in situ and is reasonably well preserved. It either functioned as a wayside cross or may, alternatively, have originated as a medieval market cross.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument is the standing cross located at the junction of Church Street, Upper Lane and Beaumont Street in Emley village. Its remains include a square plinth surmounted by a cross base or socle and the bottom section of the cross shaft. The plinth is partially obscured by the modern road surface but appears to comprise at least three layers of stone blocks or pavings which stand on an old road surface visible round one edge of the plinth. It is c.1.75m square by 70cm high and has a pronounced batter. The upper layer contains a single iron staple and is of slab construction. It is set back from the line of the lower sections, giving the plinth a slightly stepped appearance. The socle or cross base is a 60cm square block with chamfered upper corners and slight rounded stops on alternate faces. The latter appear to be decorated but this detail is obscured by the whitewash currently covering the monument. The socle is 30cm high and is surmounted by the lower section of a 20cm square cross shaft measuring approximately 70cm tall. The shaft is slightly waisted and has chamfered edges which close towards the base to form a cushion-like pedestal. The top is bevelled and contains a hole for the pin which would formerly have fixed the missing top section of the shaft. This missing section, which may have included a cross head, is likely to have been more slender than the surviving section and may have been made of wood rather than stone. The cross is Listed Grade II. Excluded from the scheduling are the surrounding modern road surfaces and the road sign next to the cross although the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Other
Hill, Angela Shackleton, (1994)
PRN 2408,

National Grid Reference: SE 24352 13075

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1011849 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 24-Nov-2017 at 12:25:27.

End of official listing