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Audley's Cross, 240m SSW of Audley's Cross Farmhouse

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Audley's Cross, 240m SSW of Audley's Cross Farmhouse

List entry Number: 1012664

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Staffordshire

District: Newcastle-under-Lyme

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Loggerheads

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 10-Jul-1961

Date of most recent amendment: 12-Jun-1995

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 21594

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone, mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD). Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the scenes of games or recreational activity. Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the 13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base, buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their original location, are considered worthy of protection.

Audley's Cross is a rare example of a medieval standing cross erected for a specialised commemorative purpose on or close to the scene of an important historical event. It is believed to stand in or near to its original position, and limited disturbance of the area immediately surrounding the cross indicates that archaeological deposits relating to the monument's construction are likely to survive intact. While parts of the cross survive from medieval times, subsequent restoration demonstrates its continued function as a memorial stone and a monument.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes Audley's Cross, a standing cross of medieval and later date. The cross stands in an arable field SSW of Audley's Cross Farm. The monument includes a base, consisting of a pedestal and a socket-stone which date from a mid 18th century restoration, and a medieval shaft and cross-head. The cross was also restored in the early 20th century. The stone pedestal is square in plan and rests on a modern plinth. There is an indistinct inscription on the northern face of the pedestal which records the restoration of the cross in 1765 by Charles Boothby Skrymster. A socket-stone stands on the pedestal. It is square in section at the base with sloping offsets rising to a socket of rectangular section. Set into the socket-stone is a stone shaft, also rectangular in section, which has been repaired. Above the shaft is the cross-head which takes the form of a simple cross bar, although the arms are not complete. The shaft and head are 1.2m high, while the full height of the cross is approximately 2.7m. Audley's Cross is believed to have been erected on, or close to, the site where James Touchet, Lord Audley was killed during the Battle of Blore Heath, which took place in 1459 between a Yorkist force commanded by Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury and a Lancastrian army under Lord Audley. The modern railings surrounding the cross are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Twemlow, F R, The Battle of Blore Heath, (1912)
Pape, T, 'Transactions of the North Staffordshire Field Club' in Audley's Cross, , Vol. 66, (1932), 186

National Grid Reference: SJ 71452 35283

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1012664 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 15-Dec-2017 at 04:09:28.

End of official listing