Wayside cross on Pinfold Lane

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1012932

Date first listed: 24-Feb-1978

Date of most recent amendment: 24-Jul-1995

Map

Ordnance survey map of Wayside cross on Pinfold Lane
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Doncaster (Metropolitan Authority)

Parish: Fishlake

National Grid Reference: SE 65535 13152

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on pilgrimages. Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to remote moorland locations. Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross, in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the `Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed base or show no evidence for a separate base at all. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth- fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

Though raised up on a modern base and, therefore, not precisely in its original location, the wayside cross on Pinfold Lane is a good and reasonably well-preserved example which would have played an important role in religious festivals and other aspects of village life during the later Middle Ages. Its importance is increased by its relationship to a second wayside cross, located at the opposite end of the village.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument is the wayside cross on Pinfold Lane set opposite the junction with Church Street. It includes the socle and shaft of a later medieval cross currently surmounted on a modern base of two sandstone steps. The socle or socket stone comprises a dressed magnesian limestone block measuring 93cm square at the base and 64cm high. The upper half has a pronounced batter or receding slope which tapers to a narrow octagonal top section pierced on alternate faces by the corners of the batter. The shaft is also of magnesian limestone and comprises a tapering octagonal column measuring 1.28m high. It has a narrow 33cm square pedestal with small pyramidal stops on alternate faces and there is a bench mark cut into the south face. The top of the shaft has shallow circular depressions at the corners which would have housed the pegs that formerly held the missing cross head in place. The cross is Listed Grade II and is one of a pair in Fishlake located at either end of the village. The second cross, which is in Trundle Lane, is the subject of a separate scheduling. Although generally termed wayside crosses, local tradition has it that they may have been preaching crosses set up to mark the places where, in the ninth century, St Cuthbert's body was set down during the funeral procession. This theory is apparently based on the dedication of the local Norman church to St Cuthbert.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 27202

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Books and journals
Morris, J E, West Riding of Yorkshire, (1932), 189
Other
Shackleton Hill, Angela, (1994)

End of official listing