Pinchinthorpe Hall moated site and post medieval gardens
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1013215
Date first listed: 03-Jul-1995
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: Redcar and Cleveland (Unitary Authority)
National Park: NORTH YORK MOORS
National Grid Reference: NZ 57679 14018
Reasons for Designation
Around 6,000 moated sites are known in England. They consist of wide ditches,
often or seasonally water-filled, partly or completely enclosing one or more
islands of dry ground on which stood domestic or religious buildings. In some
cases the islands were used for horticulture. The majority of moated sites
served as prestigious aristocratic and seigneurial residences with the
provision of a moat intended as a status symbol rather than a practical
military defence. The peak period during which moated sites were built was
between about 1250 and 1350 and by far the greatest concentration lies in
central and eastern parts of England. However, moated sites were built
throughout the medieval period, are widely scattered throughout England and
exhibit a high level of diversity in their forms and sizes. They form a
significant class of medieval monument and are important for the understanding
of the distribution of wealth and status in the countryside. Many examples
provide conditions favourable to the survival of organic remains.
Moated sites are uncommon in north east England and whilst the example at Pinchinthorpe has been modified by later building and landscaping, significant remains survive below the present ground surface. The earliest landscaping and gardening activities date to the 1660s and will contribute to the studies of garden history.
The monument includes a medieval moated site, modified in later years,
and later garden features at Pinchinthorpe Hall. The medieval hall has been
replaced with a house dating to the 17th century, although remains of the
earlier building will be preserved beneath the present gardens. The moat is
identifiable for most of its course, although it has been partly infilled and
modified by landscaping in the 17th and 19th centuries. To the east and north
sides the moat is a consistent 10m wide, up to 1.3m deep, with a well
preserved bank up to 2.2m high. From the north west angle to the formal 17th
century gateway on the west side the moat has been infilled, although its
course can be recognised as a shallow depression up to 0.2m deep. To the south
of the gateway, the inner bank of the moat is well preserved standing up to
2.7m high, and continues around the south west angle for 50m along the
southern arm and terminates at a sunken garden, cut into the moat. The eastern
end of the southern arm is infilled. The entrance to the site is thought to
have been on the western side on the site of the 17th century formal entrance.
The moat and bank were modified in the 17th century and further garden
features were added in the 18th and 19th centuries. The moat was modified by
enlarging the earthworks to create a water feature within the moat at the
north east angle, supplied by a culvert to the south east and later regulated
by a sluice crossing the eastern arm of the moat. A formal path was laid along
the bank of the east arm and prospect mounds created on the north east and
south west angles. To the west the moat was infilled and the boundary wall and
formal gateway built on the site of the original entrance to the medieval
site. It is believed that further remains of 17th century landscaping
will be preserved within the monument. In the 19th century further garden
features were introduced including: a sunken garden in the southern arm of the
moat, comprising a stone lined area 15m by 10m and housing an early 20th
century revolving summerhouse; a terraced garden, comprising steps and raised
beds 40m by 10m on the east edge of the moat; a kitchen garden with
greenhouses in the south east corner.
The origins of Pinchinthorpe Hall date to the 12th century when the Norman
family of Pinchun held land there. The site apparently passed from the
Pinchuns to the de Thorpes at the beginning of the 14th century and then to
the Conyers family in the mid 15th century. In 1576 the manor passed to the
Lee family who owned the site for the next 400 hundred years.
The monument also includes several Grade II Listed Buildings; the hall,
boundary wall, gate and gate piers, which are 17th century and the stables and
coach house which are 18th century. These structures and the garages,
greenhouses, summer house, chicken house, barn, outbuildings, fences, and the
surfaces of all paths, roads, tracks and courtyards are excluded from the
scheduling although the ground beneath is included.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: 26952
Legacy System: RSM
Books and journals
Dixon, G, Two Ancient Townships; Studies of Pinchinthorpe and Hutton, (1986), 1
Page, W , The Victoria History of the County of Yorkshire North Riding Part II, (1923), 357-360
Page, W , The Victoria History of the County of Yorkshire North Riding Part II, (1923)
RCHME, , Pinchinthorpe Moated Site
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing