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Bladon camp: a hillfort on Bladon Heath

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Bladon camp: a hillfort on Bladon Heath

List entry Number: 1013234

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Oxfordshire

District: West Oxfordshire

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Bladon

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 09-Oct-1995

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 21812

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Small multivallate hillforts are defined as fortified enclosures of varying shape, generally between 1 and 5ha in size and located on hilltops. They are defined by boundaries consisting of two or more lines of closely set earthworks spaced at intervals of up to 15m. These entirely surround the interior except on sites located on promontories, where cliffs may form one or more sides of the monument. They date to the Iron Age period, most having been constructed and occupied between the sixth century BC and the mid-first century AD. Small multivallate hillforts are generally regarded as settlements of high status, occupied on a permanent basis. Recent interpretations suggest that the construction of multiple earthworks may have had as much to do with display as with defence. Earthworks may consist of a rampart alone or of a rampart and ditch which, on many sites, are associated with counterscarp banks and internal quarry scoops. Access to the interior is generally provided by one or two entrances, which either appear as simple gaps in the earthwork or inturned passages, sometimes with guardrooms. The interior generally consists of settlement evidence including round houses, four and six post structures interpreted as raised granaries, roads, pits, gullies, hearths and a variety of scattered post and stake holes. Evidence from outside numerous examples of small multivallate hillforts suggests that extra-mural settlement was of a similar nature. Small multivallate hillforts are rare with around 100 examples recorded nationally. Most are located in the Welsh Marches and the south-west with a concentration of small monuments in the north-east. In view of the rarity of small multivallate hillforts and their importance in understanding the nature of settlement and social organisation within the Iron Age period, all examples with surviving archaeological remains are believed to be of national importance.

Bladon camp survives well despite the part levelling of the ramparts. Small-scale archaeological observations have enhanced our understanding of the site and confirmed the survival of buried archaeological remains.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a small multivallate hillfort known as Bladon camp, situated immediately south of Bladon Reservoir on Bladon Heath. The hillfort has defences which include two concentric oval ramparts with outer ditches which combine to enclose an area up to 200m across from north to south and 180m from east to west. Both ramparts are of stone rubble construction and have been partly levelled, varying in original width from 4m to 7m and standing up to 0.7m high. The ditches have become partly infilled over the years and some sections were re-cut earlier this century. The undisturbed sections are, however, visible at ground level as slight depressions 0.3m deep and up to 7m wide. They served the dual function of enhancing the defences and also provided material for the construction of the ramparts. The original entrances are not clearly defined but were probably located to the north western and south eastern sides of the monument. A series of spoil tips related to later quarrying in the area has confused the plan of the original earthworks, particularly to the west. The site was partially investigated in 1988 when fragments of Early Iron Age pottery were recovered from the silt in the bottom of the ditch, providing evidence of its date. Excluded from the scheduling are the boundary fence of the reservoir and the post and wire fence running through the woodland to the east, although the ground beneath both of these features is included in the scheduling.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Allen, T, 'Newsletter' in Bladon Reservoir Archaeological Investigations, , Vol. NL 18, (1988)
Potts, W, 'A History Of Oxfordshire' in Fortresses on Hill-Tops Following the Line of the Hill, , Vol. 2, (1907), 310
Other
PRN 1376, C.A.O., Circular enclosure, (1988)
SP 41 SE 19, Ordnance Survey (now R.C.H.M.(E), Round Castle, (1971)
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:10000 Source Date: 1981 Author: Publisher: Surveyor: Sheet SP 41 SE

National Grid Reference: SP 45677 13808

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1013234 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 18-Nov-2017 at 08:24:25.

End of official listing