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Henge, ring ditch and prehistoric settlement remains, 450m west of High Holborn Lodge

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Henge, ring ditch and prehistoric settlement remains, 450m west of High Holborn Lodge

List entry Number: 1013281

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cambridgeshire

District: Huntingdonshire

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Elton

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 15-Sep-1995

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 27104

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Henges are ritual or ceremonial centres which date to the Late Neolithic period (2800-2000 BC). They were constructed as roughly circular or oval- shaped enclosures comprising a flat area over 20m in diameter enclosed by a ditch and external bank. One, two or four entrances provided access to the interior of the monument, which may have contained a variety of features including timber or stone circles, post or stone alignments, pits, burials or central mounds. Finds from the ditches and interiors of henges provide important evidence for the chronological development of the sites, the types of activity that occurred within them and the nature of the environment in which they were constructed. Henges occur throughout England with the exception of south-eastern counties and the Welsh Marches. They are generally situated on low ground, often close to springs and water-courses. Henges are rare nationally with about 80 known examples. As one of the few types of identified Neolithic structures and in view of their comparative rarity, all henges are considered to be of national importance.

Despite being reduced by cultivation, the henge situated to the west of High Holborn Lodge remains one of the best preserved of its class in Cambridgeshire, and provides an illustration of the importance of the Nene Valley during the early prehistoric period. Limited excavation has demonstrated the survival of features containing artefactual evidence relating to the initial period of use, and its subsequent development. Aerial photography and the geophysical survey have revealed the detailed information concerning its layout, including the remains of the unusual external bank. The henge is an important feature of the Neolithic landscape along the courses of the Rivers Nene and Welland, which included two futher henges near Maxey and a causewayed camp at Etton, as well as evidence for several settlement sites. Comparisons between these sites will enable a more detailed picture of the development of prehistoric society in this area. The henge 450m west of High Holborn Lodge has unusual and close associations with a Bronze Age ring ditch and an enclosed hut circle settlement of Iron Age date. The archaeological relationships between these features and the henge illustrate the longevity of the earlier henge earthworks, and poses important questions about the changing use of the site and the utilisation of the surrounding landscape.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the buried remains of a Neolithic henge, defined by a circular ditch and the remains of an external bank, located on a terrace on the gentle, west facing slope overlooking the River Nene. The western perimeter of the henge is partially overlain by the infilled ring ditch of a later, Bronze Age bowl barrow, and within the interior of the the henge lies a rectangular enclosure containing two hut circles and a number of other features thought to be Iron Age in date. Although no earthworks can now be observed on the ground, the henge and associated features are clearly visible from the air as cropmarks and have been recorded on aerial photographs. The henge is roughly circular in plan and has a maximum diameter of approximately 100m. The north eastern part of the circuit is broken by an entranceway, c.20m in width, and a second, similar entrance is thought to exist to the south. The south eastern quadrant is less clearly defined by the photographic evidence, and may include a third gap in the bank and ditch. In 1978 a trial trench was excavated across the eastern part of the perimeter, near the possible location of this third entrance. The henge ditch proved to be U-shaped in profile, about 5.5m wide and 1m deep, cut into the sandy subsoil. The appearance of the fills was consistent with a process of gradual erosion and deposition rather than deliberate backfilling, apart from one of the lower fills which contained evidence of burning. Radiocarbon analysis of charcoal fragments from this fill provided a date of c.2100 BC. A level shelf or berm some 2m in width and approximately 0.35m deep flanked the external side of the ditch. The vertical cut which marked the outer edge of the berm was thought to indicate that the ground beyond had been protected by a bank. This hypothesis was strengthened by the results of a subsequent geophysical survey (in 1980) which recorded the presence of the remnant of the bank in several places around the perimeter of the henge. The excavation also revealed a narrow channel, 0.5m wide and 0.45m deep, running parallel to the main ditch some 1.1m from the inner edge, which is considered to represent the line of a timber fence or palisade. Eleven worked flints were recovered from the excavation and a further 37 were collected from the surrounding area during the work. The tool types present in this sample are common to the Neolithic period and Bronze Age. Fragments from the lining of a hearth dated to the Neolithic period were retrieved from the burnt layer within the ditch. Pottery from the upper fills was less closely datable, although it is thought to include fragments of Iron Age fabrics. A circular ditch, c.25m in diameter, straddles the western perimeter of the henge. This feature, now also only visible as a cropmark, is thought to represent the quarry ditch formerly surrounding a Bronze Age barrow (burial mound). Its location implies that at the time of its construction, the henge had ceased to function as a ritual monument, and that the earlier earthworks were at least partially reduced. Within the henge, the aerial photographic evidence shows a large sub-rectangular ditched enclosure, orientated north east to south west, and measuring approximately 65m by 38m. The 1980 geophysical survey revealed an entrance in the northern corner of the enclosure flanked by a western ditch which extends for some 20m to the north, across the perimeter of the henge. This feature is included in the scheduling in order to protect the archaeological relationship between the different phases of the buried remains. The enclosure contains a circular ditch, c.10m in diameter, thought to be the foundation trench or drainage gulley for a timber structure. A second similar, though less clearly defined, circle lies immediately to the north, and the area also contains numerous short linear features and pits. Together, these features are considered to represent a later prehistoric settlement which developed after the henge had fallen into disuse. The position of the enclosure does however imply that the earlier earthworks still remained visible at this time, and may even have been utilised as a boundary. The settlement may be related to a series of enclosures located on the higher ground to the north and west, and is thought to be Iron Age in date, judging from the pottery recovered from the upper fills of the henge ditch.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 5 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Other
Anomaly frequency diagram, DoE A.M. Laboratory, Elton Henge, Cambridgeshire: Magnetometer Survey 1980, (1980)
Anomaly frequency diagram, DoE A.M. Laboratory, Elton Henge: Magnetometer Survey 1980, (1980)
CUCAP, ABW 11-12, ABV 84, 87-89, (1960)
Oblique photo's of soil\crop marks, CUCAP, ABW 11-12, ABV 84, 87-89, (1960)
Oblique photo's of soil\crop marks, CUCAP, ABW 11-12, ABV 84, 87-89, (1960)
reference to Roman pottery find spot, 151a,
Taylor, A, Excavations at Elton Henge, 1978, Unpublished excavation report (SMR)
Taylor, A, Excavations at Elton Henge, 1978, Unpublished excavation report (SMR)
Title: Aerial Photograph Overlay Map Source Date: 1980 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
Title: Aerial Photograph Overlay Map Source Date: 1980 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

National Grid Reference: TL 08253 96105

Map

Map
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This copy shows the entry on 13-Dec-2017 at 05:15:44.

End of official listing