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Cockermouth Castle: medieval enclosure castle and site of earlier motte and bailey castle

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Cockermouth Castle: medieval enclosure castle and site of earlier motte and bailey castle

List entry Number: 1013333

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Allerdale

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Cockermouth

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 13-Oct-1961

Date of most recent amendment: 21-Nov-1995

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 27653

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

An enclosure castle is a defended residence or stronghold, built mainly of stone, in which the principal or sole defence comprises the walls and towers bounding the site. Some form of keep may have stood within the enclosure but this was not significant in defensive terms and served mainly to provide accommodation. Larger sites might have more than one line of walling and there are normally mural towers and gatehouses. Outside the walls a ditch, either waterfilled or dry, crossed by bridges may be found. The first enclosure castles were constructed at the time of the Norman Conquest. However, they developed considerably in form during the 12th century when defensive experience gained during the Crusades was applied to their design. The majority of examples were constructed in the 13th century although a few were built as late as the 14th century. Some represent reconstructions of earlier medieval earthwork castles of the motte and bailey type, although others were new creations. They provided strongly defended residences for the king or leading families and occur in both urban and rural situations. Enclosure castles are widely dispersed throughout England, with a slight concentration in Kent and Sussex supporting a vulnerable coast, and a strong concentration along the Welsh border where some of the best examples were built under Edward I. They are rare nationally with only 126 recorded examples. Considerable diversity of form is exhibited with no two examples being exactly alike. With other castle types, they are major medieval monument types which, belonging to the highest levels of society, frequently acted as major administrative centres and formed the foci for developing settlement patterns. Castles generally provide an emotive and evocative link to the past and can provide a valuable educational resource, both with respect to medieval warfare and defence and with respect to wider aspects of medieval society. All examples retaining significant remains of medieval date are considered to be nationally important.

Motte and bailey castles are medieval fortifications introduced into Britain by the Normans. They comprise a conical mound of earth or rubble, the motte, surmounted by a palisade, and a stone or timber tower. An embanked enclosure containing additional buildings, the bailey, adjoins the motte. They acted as garrison forts during military operations, as strongholds, as aristocratic residences, and as centres of local or royal administration. Motte and bailey castles generally occupy strategic positions dominating the immediate locality and are thus the most visually impressive monuments of the early post-Conquest period surviving in the modern landscape. They are particularly important for the study of Norman Britain and the development of the feudal system. Despite partial 17th century destruction designed to prevent the castle's refortification after the Civil War, Cockermouth Castle survives reasonably well and still retains significant remains of upstanding medieval fabric. It is a rare example in Cumbria of a medieval enclosure castle which developed from an earlier motte and bailey castle and as such provides a significant insight into the constantly changing design and defensive strategies used in medieval castles.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the upstanding and buried remains of Cockermouth enclosure castle together with the site of its motte and bailey precursor. It is strategically located on the western edge of a ridge overlooking the confluence of the Rivers Derwent and Cocker, and the town of Cockermouth. The first castle to be built on the site was a motte and bailey constructed by William de Fortibus II in the mid-12th century at the extreme western edge of the ridge. The motte was an earthen mound raised some 2m above the height of the bailey which lay to its east. On the summit of the motte there would have been a central building or a number of smaller buildings constructed against a surrounding wooden palisade. The bailey would have contained barracks, stables, barns, workshops, and storehouses placed against the timber boundary fence. There was possibly a defensive ditch between the motte and bailey and another fronting the bailey. Around 1225, William de Fortibus III replaced the timber castle with a stone triangular castle on the same site. Remains of this early stone castle survive in the basement of the west tower and the lower courses of the south and north curtain walls. During the mid to late 14th century the castle was strengthened by Thomas de Lucy; the upper parts of the north and south curtain wall, the west tower, and the bell tower are all of this date. Internally there are surviving low stone walls of the Great Hall, the Lord's Chamber and the Lady's Chamber which probably replaced earlier timber buildings. The entrance to this castle still exists adjacent to the bell tower where a door jamb remains. An outer bailey which was slightly smaller than the present one existed, and buried remains of a circular tower at its south east angle are known to exist close to the later flag tower. During the latter years of the 14th century major rebuilding work was undertaken by Maud de Lucy and her first husband the Earl of Angus, and completed by Henry Percy. Much of this work survives today and includes the kitchen tower and other rooms, collectively known as the `Percy Wing', which were built above the ditch of the earlier castle, with the ditch itself being used for cellars and the Mirk Kirk, traditionally the chapel. Two large fireplaces are still visible in the south wall of the kitchen. The inner gatehouse, flanked by guardrooms below which are dungeons, gives access from the outer bailey and a new ditch, now infilled, was dug in front of this extension. The walls of the outer bailey were extended to their present size and a new defensive ditch, now infilled, was dug outside the east curtain wall. An outer gatehouse and barbican were constructed at the north east angle and still provide access to the castle. At the south east angle the flag tower was built and used for the holding of manorial courts and audits. Documentary sources dated to 1568 and 1578 indicate that the castle was in a state of decay during the latter half of the 16th century. In August and September 1648 a garrison of Parliamentary soldiers were besieged in the castle by Royalist troops. Little damage was done to the castle during this siege but in the following year the ditch outside the inner gatehouse was infilled, the roofs of many of the internal buildings were removed along with the upper parts of the curtain walls, and some looting occurred. In 1676 there were only four bedrooms, a dining room and a kitchen in use, together with stables and cellars, a bakehouse and a courthouse. Four years later the castle passed from the Percy family to Charles Seymore, Duke of Somerset. In 1750 it passed to the Wyndham family, now Lord Egremont, in whose hands it remains. Until the beginning of the 19th century the castle was rarely visited by its owners. In 1802-5 Lord Egremont decided to live at the castle every July and August, and built some residential rooms along the north wall of the outer bailey and a stable block along the south wall. By 1850 further building completed the residential wing between the outer gatehouse and the kitchen tower and an office block had been built along the east wall of the outer bailey. In 1904 further offices were added along the east wall between the outer gatehouse and the flag tower. The following buildings are Listed Grade I; the uninhabited parts of the castle, the residential wing on the north side of the outer bailey, the outer gatehouse, the range of buildings along the east side of the outer bailey, the range of buildings on the south side of the outer bailey, the flag tower and a pump. The following are Listed Grade II; the Bowling Green House, and the garden walls of the castle. A number of features are excluded from the scheduling: these are all the post- medieval buildings and walls within the outer bailey, the pump, all the modern steps, the surface of all access drives, paths, cobbled, gravelled and tarmac areas, and the boundary wall at the foot of the ridge on which the castle is located; the ground beneath all these features, however, is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Guide to Cockermouth Castle5
Bradbury, J B, Cockermouth In Pictures -3: The Castle, (1983)
Bradbury, J B, Cockermouth In Pictures -3: The Castle, (1983), 3
Curwen, J F, 'Trans Cumb & West Antiq & Arch Soc. Extra Ser.' in Castles and Towers of Cumb, West and Lancs N of the Sands, , Vol. 13, (1913), 127-133
Curwen, J F, 'Trans Cumb & West Antiq & Arch Soc. Extra Ser.' in Castles and Towers of Cumb, West and Lancs N of the Sands, , Vol. 13, (1913), 127-33
Other
DOE, List of Buildings of Historic & Architectural Interest,
Leach,P.E., MPP Single Monument Class Description - Enclosure Castles, (1989)

National Grid Reference: NY 12226 30867

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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This copy shows the entry on 14-Dec-2017 at 10:55:35.

End of official listing