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Medieval churchyard cross 20m south of the Church of St Bruerdus, Churchtown

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Medieval churchyard cross 20m south of the Church of St Bruerdus, Churchtown

List entry Number: 1014008

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: St. Breward

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 16-Feb-1996

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 28432

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone, mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD). Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the scenes of games or recreational activity. Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the 13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base, buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their original location, are considered worthy of protection.

The cross in the churchyard of St Bruerdus has survived reasonably well. It forms a good example of an elaborately decorated four-holed, wheel-headed cross. The unusual trefoil shape of the four holes is a rare feature and is a form of decoration unique to Cornwall. Recent studies of churchyard crosses have dated this cross to the tenth century. The various relocations of the cross around St Breward and its re-erection in the cemetery at the end of the 19th century illustrate the changing attitudes to religion that have prevailed since the medieval period and the impact of these changes on the local landscape.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a medieval churchyard cross situated in the cemetery to the south of the church at Churchtown, St Breward, in north Cornwall. The churchyard cross survives as a round or `wheel' head set on a modern shaft. The overall height of the monument is 2.19m. The granite head measures 0.77m in diameter and is up to 0.23m thick. The head is fully pierced by four holes creating an equal limbed cross with widely splayed arms linked by an outer ring. Each of these holes have three rounded ribs running through them, one on the side of each limb and one on the ring forming the holes into a trefoil shape. Both principal faces are decorated. Each limb has a narrow bead around its outer edges, and the upper and side limbs are decorated with trequetra knots. The lower limb is plain. On the west principal face at the intersection of the limbs is a central round boss 0.12m in diameter. The head has been fractured across the top of the lower limb and across the lower sections of the outer ring, and the lower part of one side limb on the east face. A modern lower limb with a bead around its edge has replaced the original, and the outer ring and side limb have been repaired with cement. The head is set on a modern granite shaft measuring 1.42m high by 0.47m wide at the base, widening to 0.51m at the centre and narrowing to 0.36m at the top. The shaft is 0.19m thick, and has a narrow chamfer on each corner.

The cross-head is believed to be part of the original churchyard cross. Before 1853 it was set on top of the churchyard wall. In 1853 it was placed on a low wall between the girls' and boys' playgrounds at St Breward school, where it was illustrated by the historians Langdon and Blight. During the 1890s the cross head was restored, set on a modern shaft and re-erected in its present location in the cemetery to the south of the church. The historian Hencken in 1932 dated the cross to the 13th century, but more recent studies date this cross to the tenth century. There is a fragment of decorated cross shaft outside the public house in St Breward, 60m south west of the present position of the cross, which may be another fragment of the churchyard cross. The graves with their headstones and kerb surrounds to the east, north east, south, west, and north west, where they fall within the protective margin of the cross are excluded from the scheduling, but the ground beneath is included.

The cross is Listed Grade II.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Langdon, A G, Old Cornish Crosses, (1896)
Langdon, A G, Stone Crosses of North Cornwall, (1992)
Other
Consulted 1995, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 3467,
Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SX 07/17; Pathfinder Series 1338 Source Date: 1988 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

National Grid Reference: SX 09744 77320

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1014008 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 22-Nov-2017 at 04:58:32.

End of official listing