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Roman period native enclosed farmstead 320m north west of Southernknowe

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Roman period native enclosed farmstead 320m north west of Southernknowe

List entry Number: 1014488

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Northumberland

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Kirknewton

National Park: NORTHUMBERLAND

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 22-May-1996

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 24627

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

The Roman period native farmstead north west of Southernknowe is well preserved and will retain significant archaeological deposits. The monument is situated within an area of clustered archaeological sites of high quality and forms part of a wider archaeological landscape. It will make a significant contribution to the study of the wider settlement pattern at this time.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a Roman period native farmstead situated on a level platform on an east facing slope above the valley of the College Burn. The ground to the east falls away sharply to the valley bottom. The enclosure is roughly D-shaped and measures externally 40m north-south by 21m east-west. It is scooped into the hillside on the west to a depth of up to 2m. The remaining sides are contained by a single bank of earth and stones averaging 3m wide and maximum height 0.6m. There is a simple entrance, 2m wide, at the north end. Inside the enclosure are two raised platforms. The northern platform is set in the scoop on the west side of the enclosure; it measures 11m north-south by 8m east-west and stands 1.2m high. The southern platform is set against the south side of the enclosure; it measures 6m north-south by 5m east-west and stands 1.5m high. The western side of the monument is bounded by a modern road.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details

National Grid Reference: NT 88660 24797

Map

Map
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1014488 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 17-Dec-2017 at 03:32:36.

End of official listing