Roman period native enclosed farmstead, 470m ESE of Fleehope


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1014493

Date first listed: 20-May-1996


Ordnance survey map of Roman period native enclosed farmstead, 470m ESE of Fleehope
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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This copy shows the entry on 11-Dec-2018 at 06:50:12.


The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Northumberland (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Kirknewton


National Grid Reference: NT 88865 23502


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

The Roman period native farmstead 470m ESE of Fleehope is reasonably well preserved. The extent of the site is still clearly visible despite a later sheepfold built over part of the monument and the modern forestry plantation across the site, and it will retain significant archaeological deposits. The monument is situated within an area of clustered archaeological sites of high quality and forms part of a wider archaeological landscape. It will make a significant contribution to the study of the wider settlement pattern at this time.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The monument includes a Roman period native enclosed farmstead partly overlain by a modern sheepfold. The farmstead is situated on the north west slope of Fawcett Shank, a north-south ridge lying between the valleys of the College and Lambden burns. The extensive views along the College Valley are obscured by a modern forestry plantation which overlies the monument. The settlement comprises two contiguous enclosures. The eastern enclosure is oval and measures 18m east-west by 23m north-south. The eastern side is scooped into the hillside to a depth of 0.7m with a very slight bank above. On the western side the enclosure is defined by an earth and stone bank 2.5m wide and up to 0.7m high. There is a simple gap entrance 1.5m wide in the north west side. Within this enclosure is a smaller scooped area, 16m in diameter, overlain by a modern sheepfold probably built of stone robbed from the main enclosure bank. The second enclosure is situated against the south west side of the first and comprises a circular scooped area with an irregular courtyard to the north. The scooped area is 11m in diameter and enclosed on the north, south and west sides by an earth and stone bank 1.5m wide and 0.4m high and scooped into the hillside on the east. Within the scooped area is a stony bank which defines a quadrant in the south west of the scoop and may indicate secondary use. To the north is the courtyard which is irregular in shape and measures a maximum of 15m east-west by 8m north-south; it is enclosed by a bank of earth and stone up to 1m wide and 0.4m high on the north and is scooped on the south east side. There is no apparent entrance from the courtyard into the scooped area.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 5 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 24633

Legacy System: RSM

End of official listing