Roman period native enclosed settlement 270m ESE of Fleehope


Heritage Category:
Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number:
Date first listed:


Ordnance survey map of Roman period native enclosed settlement 270m ESE of Fleehope
© Crown Copyright and database right 2019. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

Northumberland (Unitary Authority)
National Park:
National Grid Reference:
NT 88654 23538

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

Although partly afforested, the native enclosed settlement 270m ESE of Fleehope survives substantially intact and forms a reasonably well preserved example of a Roman period native settlement. It is one of a cluster of broadly contemporary sites which overlie earlier cultivation terraces on the north west slope of Fawcett Shank and, as such, it forms part of a wider archaeological landscape. It will contribute to the study of the wider settlement pattern during this period.


The monument includes a native enclosed settlement dating to the Roman period. It is situated 270m ESE of Fleehope, on the north west slope of Fawcett Shank on an area of moorland that has now been afforested. The monument consists of a long, oval enclosure of earth and stone banks partly scooped into the hillside and containing the remains of internal divisions. The enclosure overlies the terraces of an earlier field system, possibly associated with the defended settlement on Fawcett Shank. The full extent and nature of this field system is not fully understood because of subsequent afforestation, hence it is not included in the scheduling. The enclosure is one of a cluster of broadly contemporary sites on the lower slopes of Fawcett Shank. The settlement covers an oval area, 44m north-south by 20m east-west. It is enclosed on three sides by an earth and stone bank, up to 4m wide and 0.5m high. The rear, eastern, edge of the enclosure is scooped into the hillslope to a depth of c.1.5m. Within the enclosure, there is an internal scooped area, up to 0.5m deep, in the south east corner. The remains of internal partition walls dividing the front of the enclosure into a number rectangular compartments appear to represent later reuse of the site.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

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This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.

End of official listing

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