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A 16th century mansion and garden remains at Biddulph Old Hall

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: A 16th century mansion and garden remains at Biddulph Old Hall

List entry Number: 1014688

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Staffordshire

District: Staffordshire Moorlands

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Biddulph

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 02-Sep-1960

Date of most recent amendment: 01-Aug-1996

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 21636

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Country houses of the late Tudor and early Jacobean period comprise a distinctive group of buildings which differ in form, function, design and architectural style from country houses of both earlier and later date. Built after the dissolution of the monasteries they are the product of a particular historical period in which a newly-emerged Protestant elite of lawyers, courtiers, diplomats and other officials, mostly with close contacts at court, competed with each other to demonstrate wealth, taste and loyalty to the sovereign, often overstretching themselves financially. Their houses are a development of the medieval hall with flanking wings and a gatehouse, often looking inwards onto a courtyard; later examples tend to be built outwards, typically on a U- or H-plan. The hall was transformed from a reception area to an entrance vestibule and the long gallery and loggia were introduced. Many houses were provided with state apartments and extensive lodgings for the accommodation of royal visitors and their retinues. Country houses of this period were normally constructed under the supervision of one master-mason or a succession of masons, often combining a number of designs drawn up by the master-mason, surveyor or by the employer himself. Many designs and stylistic details were copied from Continental pattern-books, particularly those published in the 1560s on French, Italian and Flemish models; further architectural ideas were later spread by the use of foreign craftsmen. Symmetry in both plan and elevation was an overriding principle, often carried to extremes in the Elizabethan architectural `devices' in which geometric forms were employed to express religious and philosophical ideas. Elements of Classical architecture were drawn on individually rather than applied strictly in unified orders. This complex network of influences resulted in liberal and idiosyncratic combinations of architectural styles which contrasted with the adoption of the architecture of the Italian Renaissance, and with it the role of the architect, later in the 17th century. About 5000 country houses are known to have been standing in 1675; of these about 1000 are thought to survive, although most have been extensively altered or rebuilt in subsequent centuries to meet new demands and tastes. Houses which are uninhabited, and have thus been altered to a lesser degree, are much rarer. Surviving country houses of the late Tudor and early Jacobean period stand as an irreplaceable record of an architectural development which was unique both to England and to a particular period in English history characterised by a flourishing of artistic invention; they provide an insight into politics, patronage and economics in the early post-medieval period. All examples with significant surviving archaeological remains are considered to be of national importance.

The remains of the 16th century mansion at Biddulph Old Hall stand in good condition and are sufficiently substantial to illustrate the former appearance of this high status residence. The building illustrates fashionable concepts in the domestic architecture of the late 16th century, including the tendency towards symmetry in planning and an increase in the number of windows to allow light into the building. The elaborate, and for its time, up-to-date south entrance clearly reflects the influence of Renaissance ideas on the architecture of this period locally. Buried structural and artefactual evidence for the four building ranges will provide further information on the construction and internal layout of the mansion and for the activities of its inhabitants, whilst paths, surfaces and other features will survive as buried features within the internal courtyard. Surviving earthwork and buried evidence also provides a clear picture of the setting of the house. The gardens to the south of the house will retain archaeological and palaeobotanical evidence for borders, parterres and other elements of their planting and design, thus making an important contribution to our understanding of both this garden and of 16th century gardens in general.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument stands in a prominent position above the valley of the Biddulph Brook, approximately 1.4km to the north of Biddulph. It includes the ruins, part of which are Listed Grade II*, and the buried remains of a late 16th century house which was described by the historian Sampson Erdeswick in the late 16th century as a `statelike and fair new house of stone'. A number of earthwork features associated with a formal garden, and part of a principal carriageway to the south, are also included. The house was built of coursed and dressed sandstone and takes the form of four ranges around a rectangular inner courtyard with maximum dimensions of 30m north-south and approximately 25m west-east. It was constructed in the 1580s for Francis Biddulph, whose family continued to occupy the house for two generations. During the Civil War it was garrisoned by the family in support of the king and came under siege by the Parliamentarians in January 1643, when the east range was destroyed and the house plundered and fired. The remaining external elevations of the north, west and south ranges provide a clear impression of the mansion's original appearance. Even though the internal walls of all four ranges, together with the external wall of the eastern range are no longer visible above the ground surface, they will survive as buried foundations. The main entrance is an archway through the centre of the southern elevation flanked by ornamental, tapering pilasters, one of which retains a plaque inscribed with the date 1580, 1588 or 1589. A window above the doorway is also flanked by pilasters and topped with an ornamental pediment of sandstone blocks. Adjacent to the entrance on the north east are the standing remains of a small chamber which is thought to have been a gate keeper's lodge. The two storey southern elevation is symmetrical and, in part, stands to just below the roof line. There are two- and three-light mullioned windows on the ground and first floors, either side of the entrance, and at each end of the elevation are semi-octagonal bay windows of two storeys with mullions and transoms typical of the late 16th century. Identical bay windows survive within the west range and it is thought that there were originally further bays within the north and east ranges to complete the symmetrical design. The architecture of the west range is otherwise distinctly different from the rest of the house, however. Its window openings are considerably smaller than elsewhere and a large fireplace indicates that this range housed the kitchen. There is a doorway towards the southern end of the west range which is believed to be an original feature to provide access between the house and the land to the west and north. The internal, south facing elevation of the north range retains evidence that it was originally of three storeys, although there is also evidence that sections of this elevation have been rebuilt in more recent times. The window openings in the range mirror the position of those within the south range, although the majority have been blocked up. On the second floor are the remains of a fireplace and a large, blocked archway which appears to have provided access between this floor and an octagonal stair- turret situated in the central part of the range. The stair-turret is surmounted by an ogee-shaped cap and projects slightly northwards beyond the external wall of the north range. The eastern end of the north range is occupied by the house known as Biddulph Old Hall, a mainly 17th century building which incorporates some late 16th century masonry within its fabric and has 18th and 19th century alterations and additions. The house is in use as a dwelling and, together with the external wall of the north range, is Listed Grade II*. The house itself is excluded from the scheduling but the western half of the external wall of the north range, 19m in length, which has not been incorporated within the present Biddulph Old Hall is included in the scheduling together with the ground beneath the house which will retain buried features associated with the construction and occupation of the earlier mansion. The main approach to the house was from the south via a carriageway which enters a levelled, rectangular area, or court, immediately in front of the house. The carriageway extends southwards from the main entrance to the house for approximately 250m and an 18m section of this approach, immediately to the south of the court, is included in the scheduling to preserve the relationship between these features. The court itself is defined to the west and south west by an artificial bank some 74m long which would have supported a raised walkway, and to the east and south east by a level terrace, also originally carrying a walkway, which has been cut into the hillside. Together, they define an area of approximately 0.25ha. It is thought that much of the court was occupied by formal gardens that could be viewed from the raised walkways which flank either side of the court. The area is now overlain by grass but is considered to retain buried features, including the surfaces of paths and archaeological evidence for the arrangement of borders and parterres. The surfaces of all pathways, the modern walling in the eastern part of the site and the 17th century Biddulph Old Hall, a Grade II* Listed Building, are all excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Allidge, J T, 'Transactions of the North Staffordshire Field Club' in The Possessions of Biddulph, (1888), 69-76
Beckett, J H, 'Transactions of the North Staffordshire Field Club' in Three Old Houses, , Vol. 57, (1923), 91-4

National Grid Reference: SJ 89355 60123

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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This copy shows the entry on 22-Nov-2017 at 11:14:45.

End of official listing