Duck decoy pond 200m south east of Marsh Bridge

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1014717

Date first listed: 02-Feb-1976

Date of most recent amendment: 16-Jul-1996

Map

Ordnance survey map of Duck decoy pond 200m south east of Marsh Bridge
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2018. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Halton (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Hale

National Grid Reference: SJ 47803 82677

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Decoy ponds are artificially created or modified pools of water onto which wildfowl were lured to be trapped and killed for food and for feathers. They consist of a central pool off which lead a number of curving arms or ditches, known as pipes. Nets were constructed over the narrowing ends of these pipes towards which the birds were lured by the decoyman and his dog. Screens were erected along the sides of the pipes with carefully placed gaps so that the dog would be visible to the birds only when his appearance would lead the birds towards the nets at the ends of the pipes. Once at the ends the nets would be dropped and the decoyman was able to wring the birds' necks. The tradition of constructing such ponds appears to have begun in the medieval period, with the simplest designs indicating an early date. The more familiar decoy pond, however, is said to have originated in Holland and to have been introduced into England in the 17th century. The word `decoy' is said to derive from the Dutch `eendenkooi' meaning `duck cage'. Their greatest popularity came in the 18th and 19th centuries when large numbers were built, with a small number continuing in use until World War II. The ideal size for a decoy pond was between 1ha and 5ha with a depth of water of not more than a metre. The number of pipes varies from one to more than five, often arranged in symmetrical patterns around the central pool. Although once common features of lowland England (being particularly associated with the east and south east coasts), modern drainage has modified or destroyed all but a few examples. Most examples which survive in a near-complete state of preservation will be considered of national importance and worthy of protection.

The duck decoy at Hale survives remarkably well, retaining the ironwork which supported the nets for the pipes. The brick lined features are well preserved and the drains are cleaned out and functioning. The survival of working features of the site give important information on the original management and function of the decoy during the 17th century.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a pentagonal enclosure with an outer ditch, containing a pond with five regularly spaced curving pipes leading into the corners of the pentagon. There is also a boat dock on the north side of the pond bearing a date stone marked 1638. It was constructed as a duck decoy in which the birds were driven into the pipes which were covered over by nets stretched over a frame of iron hoops. This was an important source of food for the manor during the 17th and 18th centuries, yielding an average catch of 1000 birds in a season. The outside bank stands to a height of 2m above the marsh and averages 10m in width at the base. Each side is 120m long. The outside ditch is 5m wide and 2m deep. Inside the bank is a narrow path with drains taking overflowing water to an outfall on the east side. In the centre is a roughly pentagonal pond 90m across, and leading from each corner is a pipe 50m long, 8m wide and tapered at the end. These are still covered by the remains of the iron hoops which were to support the nets at the apex of the pipes. Each pipe was constructed of brick at the sides, with a clay bottom. On the north side of the pond is a small dock for a boat also constructed of brick, with a date stone marked RC 1638. The area enclosed is 1.8ha. A small brick-built hut on the island, which was an addition to the decoy, provided a shelter for those working the pond. On the north side of the decoy there is a modern swing footbridge over the moat which may occupy the position of an earlier bridge. The footbridge and its footings are not included in the scheduling, although the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 27581

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Books and journals
Dugdale, T, Curiosities of Great Britain: Volume V91

End of official listing