Roman period native farmstead 320m north east of Longknowe


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1014774

Date first listed: 24-Jul-1996


Ordnance survey map of Roman period native farmstead 320m north east of Longknowe
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Northumberland (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Kilham


National Grid Reference: NT 87168 31040


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

The Roman period native farmstead 320m north east of Longknowe is well preserved and will contain significant archaeological deposits. The settlement is situated within an area of clustered archaeological sites of high quality and forms part of a wider archaeological landscape. It will contribute to the study of the broader settlement pattern during this period.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The monument includes the remains of a Roman period native farmstead lying in a valley beneath the slopes of Longknowe Hill to the south east and Whaup Moor to the west. The farmstead is situated on the edge of a river terrace above a stream. It is oval in shape and measures 37m north-south by 32m east-west and is enclosed by an earth and stone bank which measures up to 6m wide and stands 0.2m-1m high. The bank is very slight on the south west side but on the east the height of the bank is enhanced externally by the river terrace and stands 2m high. There is an entrance on the north east side which measures c.2m wide. On the east side of the entrance the bank curves away forming a spur running for a distance of 14m. In the south west part of the enclosure is a raised platform which stands up to 0.5m high. It contains the remains of a hut circle 7m in diameter and up to 0.2m high. Across the north west side the farmstead is bisected by a modern road. Its surface is excluded from the scheduling, but the ground beneath is included. A telegraph pole on the north west side of the monument is also excluded, although the ground beneath it is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 24649

Legacy System: RSM


NT 83 SE 4,

End of official listing