Wayside cross-head in Sancreed churchyard on churchyard wall by west gate

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1015055

Date first listed: 27-Oct-1967

Date of most recent amendment: 12-Nov-1996

Map

Ordnance survey map of Wayside cross-head in Sancreed churchyard on churchyard wall by west gate
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Cornwall (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Sancreed

National Grid Reference: SW 42005 29351

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on pilgrimages. Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to remote moorland locations. Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross, in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the `Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed base or show no evidence for a separate base at all. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth- fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

This wayside cross-head in Sancreed churchyard has survived reasonably well and is a good example of a wheel headed cross-head. In its original site it probably acted as a waymarker on a route within the parish to the church. Its discovery, removal to the churchyard and re-erection there in the later 19th century illustrates well the changing attitudes to religion and their impact on the local landscape since the medieval period.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a medieval wayside cross-head located in Sancreed churchyard on the Penwith peninsula in west Cornwall. This is one of five crosses now present in the churchyard. The wayside cross-head, which is Listed Grade II, survives as a round, `wheel' head mounted on the boundary wall of the churchyard by the west entrance. The overall height of the monument is 0.43m. The principal faces are orientated east-west. The head measures 0.43m high by 0.64m wide and is 0.2m thick. Both principal faces bear a relief equal limbed cross with slightly splayed ends to the limbs. There is a fracture across the lower part of the head, and most of the lower limb is missing. This cross-head was found by the vicar of Sancreed, the Rev Basset Rogers, in 1887, in a ditch on Trannack estate, 1.25km north of Sancreed church. The occupier of the farm was about to use it as building stone for a hedge, but allowed the vicar to remove the cross-head. It was re-erected on the churchyard wall, by the west entrance to the churchyard, in its present location. It is not known exactly where the cross was originally sited, but it is believed that it marked a route from Trannack to the church at Sancreed. The two iron bars of an archway over the entrance to the churchyard to the south east of the cross, fall within its protective margin and are excluded from the scheduling, but the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 29211

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Books and journals
Langdon, A G, Old Cornish Crosses, (1896)
Other
Consulted 1995, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN No. 28712.61,
Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SW 32/42; Pathfinder Series 1368 Source Date: 1980 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

End of official listing