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Romano-British farmstead, field system and trackway on Wolstonbury Hill

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Romano-British farmstead, field system and trackway on Wolstonbury Hill

List entry Number: 1015228

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: West Sussex

District: Mid Sussex

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Pyecombe

National Park: SOUTH DOWNS

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 31-Jan-1997

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 27078

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Romano-British farmsteads are small agricultural units comprising groups of up to four circular or rectangular houses along with associated structures which may include wells, storage pits, corn-drying ovens and granary stores. These were sometimes constructed within a yard surrounded by a rectangular or curvilinear enclosure, and associated field systems, trackways and cemeteries may be located nearby. Most Romano-British farmsteads in south east England have been discovered by the analysis of aerial photographs. They usually survive in the form of buried features visible as crop and soil marks and occasionally as low earthworks. Often situated on marginal agricultural land and found throughout the British Isles, they date to the period of Roman occupation (c.AD 43-450). Romano-British farmsteads are generally regarded as low status settlements, with the members of one family or small kinship group pursuing a mixed farming economy. Excavation at these sites has shown a marked continuity with later prehistoric settlements. There is little evidence of personal wealth and a limited uptake of the Romanised way of life. Romano- British farmsteads occur throughout southern England, but cluster on the chalk downland of Wessex, Sussex and Kent. As the most representative form of rural settlement in the region during the Roman period, all Romano-British farmsteads which have been positively identified and which have significant surviving remains will merit protection.

The Romano-British farmstead, field system and trackway on Wolstonbury Hill survive well and have been shown by part excavation to contain archaeological remains and environmental evidence relating to the construction and use of the monument. The farmstead forms part of a group of monuments situated on this part of the Sussex Downs and its close association with earlier prehistoric sites illustrates the changes in the way the hill has been used over the centuries.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a farmstead dating to the late Romano-British period and its associated field system and trackway situated on the north eastern slope of Wolstonbury Hill, a clay-with-flints capped, chalk spur which forms part of the Sussex Downs. The farmstead survives as a group of at least four north west-south east aligned, parallel rectangular terraces measuring up to c.90m by c.15m cut into the hillslope. Part excavation in 1934 and 1950 revealed traces of two circular houses constructed on two of the terraces, the largest with a diameter of c.12m. Fragments of clay roof tiles, a door key, iron nails, and part of a Greensand rotary quern were also discovered, along with sherds of pottery dating to the late fourth century AD. The investigations also identified further building platforms representing the sites of at least six associated structures. The contemporary field system surrounds the farmstead, sharing its alignment and orientation. It is represented by a number of faint parallel lynchets with an average height of c.0.25m, covering an area of c.1.7ha. Approaching the farmstead from the spur to the south west, the trackway survives as a level terrace c.200m long cut into the hillslope and measures an average of c.8m wide. The trackway continues to the south west of the monument in the form of a narrow modern sheep track, although this area is not included in the scheduling.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Holleyman, G A, 'Sussex Archaeological Collections' in Romano British Site On Wolstonbury Hill, (1935), 35-45
Holleyman, G A, 'Sussex Archaeological Collections' in Romano British Site On Wolstonbury Hill, (1935), 35-45
Other
note only, Woodard, Sussex Notes and Queries, (1950)

National Grid Reference: TQ 28652 13945

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1015228 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 24-Nov-2017 at 09:44:14.

End of official listing