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Churchyard cross in All Saints churchyard

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Churchyard cross in All Saints churchyard

List entry Number: 1015509

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: North Somerset

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Kingston Seymour

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 02-Jan-1997

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 28829

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone, mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD). Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the scenes of games or recreational activity. Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the 13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base, buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their original location, are considered worthy of protection.

Although the shaft and cross head has been replaced, the standing cross in the churchyard at Kingston Seymour survives well as a visually impressive monument of the medieval period in what is likely to be its original location. The medieval cross relates to the 13th century Church of All Saints.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a restored cross situated in the churchyard at Kingston Seymour c.4m south east of the church. The cross, which is Listed Grade II, has a five step octagonal calvary, socket stone, shaft and simple Latin cross head. The first step of the calvary is 0.4m high, and the second, third, fourth and fifth steps are 0.33m, 0.28m, 0.25m and 0.2m high. The first step is 3.8m in diameter with mortared flagstones on its upper surface forming an overhanging drip, each side of its octagon being 1.5m long. The width of the octagonal sides of the second, third, fourth and fifth steps are 1.17m, 1m, 0.72m and 0.5m respectively. Above the fifth step of the calvary is the octagonal socket stone. The socket stone has a deep drip on its upper surface which is chamfered obliquely and below this is a fillet decoration. The lower surface of the socket stone is bevelled outwards. It is 0.8m wide and 0.55m high with each side of its octagon being 0.32m long. The central socket 0.3m square in which sits the square base of the shaft. The shaft is c.1.5m high; its square base is stopped and the shaft continues in octagonal form as it tapers to a simple Latin cross head. The calvary is constructed from stone blocks and mortared flagstones, and the socket stone is hewn from one piece of stone. Investigation by probing around the base of the cross at the time of the field visit showed that there appears to be a platform of stones around the cross and beneath the surface of the grass at a depth of c.0.1m and to a width of 0.8m from the edges of the calvary, except on the north west side where a path abuts the cross. The shaft and cross head were erected in 1863 by Mr James Flack who also designed the restored cross head. At the same time the calvary, which was in a dilapidated condition, was repaired. The cross is dated to the 15th century. There is the socket stone of another cross in the village c.150m to the north east of the churchyard cross. This has now become incorporated into a war memorial. It is thought to have been part of the village cross, but there is no indication of its original location. The surface of the churchyard path is excluded from the scheduling where this falls within the area in which buried stone has been recorded, although the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Pooley, C, Old Stone Crosses of Somerset, (1877), 30-31

National Grid Reference: ST 40098 66846

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1015509 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 24-Nov-2017 at 07:53:26.

End of official listing