Enclosed settlement and subsidiary enclosure on east slope of Brands Hill, 700m south west of the south western edge of Broom Crook Plantation


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1015634

Date first listed: 15-Apr-1997


Ordnance survey map of Enclosed settlement and subsidiary enclosure on east slope of Brands Hill, 700m south west of the south western edge of Broom Crook Plantation
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Northumberland (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Ilderton


National Grid Reference: NT 98253 23997


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

The enclosed settlement and subsidiary enclosure on the east slope of Brands Hill forms a well preserved example of a Roman period native settlement. The circuits of the two main enclosures and the subsidiary enclosure survive well and the interior scooped courtyards and building foundations are clearly visible. The site is situated within an area of clustered archaeological sites of high quality and forms part of a wider archaeological landscape. It will contribute to the study of the wider settlement pattern during this period.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


This monument includes a native settlement dating to the Roman period. It is situated on the east slope of Brands Hill, 700m south west of the south western edge of Broom Crook Plantation. The monument consists of two contiguous settlement enclosures deeply scooped into the hillside. The enclosures contain the remains of scooped courtyards and the stone foundations of a prehistoric building. An irregularly shaped subsidiary enclosure is attached to the north west of the settlement enclosures. The southern settlement enclosure measures c.18m by 16m internally. It is enclosed by an earth and stone bank, 3m wide and up to 1m high, with a wide, stone faced entrance in the south east side. Within this enclosure are the remains of two scooped courtyards. The eastern courtyard measures c.9m by 8m and is deeply scooped to a depth of c.2m. The interior is obscured by piles of loose dumped stone. The western courtyard measures 7m in diameter, it is defined on the eastern side by a low bank c.1m wide, and the back of the courtyard is scooped into the hillside to a depth of c.1m. The stone foundations of a prehistoric building, 3m by 4m, lie immediately upslope from this courtyard. The northern settlement enclosure measures 9m by 10m internally. It is enclosed by a stone and earth bank, 3m wide and up to 0.7m high, with a stone faced entrance, 1.5m wide, in the north side. A further entrance connects it to the settlement enclosure to the south. A large pile of loose stone has been dumped over the south eastern part of the enclosure bank. An irregularly shaped subsidiary enclosure is attached to the west side of the settlement enclosures. This is defined by a bank of large, loose boulders, up to 3m wide and 0.5m high. It is roughly triangular in shape, with maximum dimensions of 50m by 26m. It is divided internally by a slight bank aligned east-west.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 24658

Legacy System: RSM

End of official listing