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Acton Burnell Castle, a moated site with chamber block and tithe barn

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Acton Burnell Castle, a moated site with chamber block and tithe barn

List entry Number: 1015812

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Shropshire

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Acton Burnell

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 05-Feb-1915

Date of most recent amendment: 11-Jul-1997

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 27531

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Around 6,000 moated sites are known in England. They consist of wide ditches, often or seasonally water-filled, partly or completely enclosing one or more islands of dry ground on which stood domestic or religious buildings. In some cases the islands were used for horticulture. The majority of moated sites served as prestigious aristocratic and seigneurial residences with the provision of a moat intended as a status symbol rather than a practical military defence. The peak period during which moated sites were built was between about 1250 and 1350 and by far the greatest concentration lies in central and eastern parts of England. However, moated sites were built throughout the medieval period, are widely scattered throughout England and exhibit a high level of diversity in their forms and sizes. They form a significant class of medieval monument and are important for the understanding of the distribution of wealth and status in the countryside. Many examples provide conditions favourable to the survival of organic remains.

Acton Burnell Castle moated complex survives well and is a good example of a large moated site of high status, one of the most substantial of its kind in the county. The moat itself is unusually large and designed both to protect the domestic complex and underline the status of its owner. Elements of the substantial buildings contained within the moat remain in fine condition. The chamber block, though a ruined shell, stands to its full height and remains an impressive building. The gable walls of the substantial tithe barn are equally impressive, and both structures retain many of their original architectural details. The site is well documented, being used as both residence and meeting place for the most powerful men of the medieval kingdom. Archaeological evidence will survive in the vicinity of the chamber block and tithe barn, relating to the construction of these buildings and their use and occupation. The buried remains of other buildings, and archaeological material relating to the occupation of the site, will survive stratified throughout the interior of the moated enclosure. Environmental evidence relating to the landscape in which the monument was constructed will survive sealed beneath the floors of the buildings and in the fills of the moat. The site is in the care of the Secretary of State and is open to the public throughout the year.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the remains of Acton Burnell Castle, a 13th century residential complex situated on level ground south of Acton Burnell Hall, with easy access to the Roman road from Wroxeter to South Wales. The site includes the ruins and buried remains of a substantial chamber block and tithe barn, and the earthwork and buried remains of a perimeter moat. The manor of Acton is first mentioned in Domesday, and a century later it was held by William Burnell, whose descendant Robert was responsible for the construction of many of the standing features. Robert Burnell served as secretary to Edward I, as Chancellor of England and Bishop of Bath and Wells, and was one of the most influential and powerful men of his time. He was granted a licence by the king to crenellate and fortify a property at Acton Burnell in 1284, and work began on the site around this date, replacing the earlier house in which Robert was born. Work continued on the manor throughout Burnell's lifetime, and it seems likely that it was still in progress at his death in 1292. The property stayed in the family, but the descent of the lordship suggests it had ceased to be used as a residence by 1420, which would explain the absence of later medieval modifications. It subsequently passed by marriage to the Lovells of Titchmarsh, and was confiscated by Henry VII in 1485 and given to the Earl of Surrey in return for his services at the battle of Flodden in 1513. In the 16th century it became part of the estates of the Duke of Norfolk and by the 17th century had passed to the Smythe family. By this time most of the original buildings had been demolished. In the 18th century Acton Burnell Hall was built to the north of the castle, and the estate was remodelled to create the parkland seen today, Burnell's chamber block being incorporated into the park as an ornamental barn. St Mary's Church, Burnell's chamber block, and the tithe barn, all lie on a roughly rectangular platform which is orientated WSW to ENE along the slope. Overall the platform measures c.250m long by over 138m wide. A perimeter moat can be traced for most of its circuit along the east, north and west sides, but the southern arm is no longer visible as a surface feature. Along the east side, the inner slope of the moat is visible as a well defined scarp slope averaging 1.5m high and running roughly NNW-SSE through parkland. The outer slope of the moat here has been spread and modified by later landscaping. At its southern end this arm of the moat passes into arable farmland and its extent and orientation are uncertain. The western side of the enclosure is visible as a clear ditch 8m wide and 1.5m deep, running along property boundaries west of the site for up to 100m. At its southern end it becomes infilled and its relationship with the southern arm is obscured by the plantation through which it runs. To the north the ditch ends in line with the modern approach road, which lies at a lower level than the ground to its immediate south, along a distinct scarp up to 0.8m high. It seems probable that this lies on the original line of the northern ditch, its southern edge being defined by the scarp edge of the platform. This northern arm continues east as a buried feature, lying partly under the later buildings of Acton Burnell Hall, and partly under landscaped lawns. The layout of the buildings within the platform is only partly evident. Centrally placed towards the western end sits the parochial Church of St Mary. This church was completely rebuilt in the time of Bishop Burnell and must have been an important element in his reconstruction of the site. That there was a church in this position before, however, is suggested by the alignment of the two surviving medieval churchyard walls to the south and east, which are set at a different angle from the other known buildings in the enclosure, and are included in the scheduling. The grandest building known from Burnell's rebuilding campaign, however, is the surviving chamber block containing the bishop's private apartments. The ruins of this building stand south of the centre of the moated enclosure and south east of the parish church, and are Listed Grade I. The block constitutes a self-contained suite of rooms, similar in concept to a Norman keep, though designed primarily for convenience and display rather than defence. It is a two-storeyed building of coursed sandstone ashlar on a rectangular plan, with dimensions of 30m east-west by 16m north-south. In the centre of the west side is a large projecting garderobe tower with a pyramidal roof. At each corner of the building are projecting towers of a rectangular plan with moulded plinths and chamfered offsets, which rise to a third storey. Three of these retain their original battlements, whilst the south west tower has a pyramidal roof added in the 18th century to convert it into a dovecote. These towers are supplied with small rectangular windows. The main chambers on the first floor were equipped with large windows filled with simple geometrical tracery. The ground floor chambers also had traceried windows in the south side, but to the north were lit by simple lancets. The main block was roofed in two spans rising behind ornamental battlements. The ground floor was originally entered through one of three doors in the eastern part, at least two of which communicated with service buildings, probably of timber and connected to the east wall of the chamber block. Evidence for this two-storeyed structure can be seen on the outer face of the wall, and its foundations will survive below ground. The ground floor was divided into four chambers, two large halls and two smaller rooms, with small chambers in the western towers and porch-like chambers in the eastern ones. The main chambers were on the first floor and were dominated by a large, nearly square, hall at the eastern end. This hall was divided east-west by an open arcade, and appears to have been entered directly from the outside by a staircase leading to a porch or waiting room in the now badly ruined north east tower. To the west was a single private chamber equipped with garderobes and a private stair leading up to a second chamber. The surviving remains of the chamber block show it was designed as the main dwelling for the Chancellor and his household. However, an establishment of this status would have provided housing for manorial officials, guests and attendants, as well as domestic provisions such as stables, barns and a brew house. Of these, the only remains standing above ground are the ruins of a large tithe barn, which stand some 100m north east of the manor. The two gable ends of the barn survive to their full height, and evidence for the side elevations will survive below ground. The gables would have formed the north and south ends of a substantial aisled building, 50m long by 13m wide. This barn is, by tradition, the place where in 1283 Parliament sat for the first time. Although no longer visible as surface features, the remains of the other medieval buildings will survive as buried features within the enclosure, probably mostly located to the north and east of the chamber block. Although an original part of the medieval building complex, St Mary's Church, a Grade I Listed Building, is totally excluded from the scheduling as it remains in ecclesiastical use. Its graveyard is also in contemporary use and therefore excluded. However, the medieval churchyard walls to the east and south of the church are included, being regarded as important elements of the medieval building complex. All modern buildings, including Acton Burnell Hall (Grade II* Listed), all boundary features, benches and information boards, all modern roads, paths, and playing surfaces, are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath all these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Ralegh Radford, CA, Acton Burnell Castle, (1985)
Other
ancient monument terrier, HBMC, Acton Burnell Castle, (1984)
on site information board, HBMC,
site information board, HBMC,

National Grid Reference: SJ 53395 01944

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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This copy shows the entry on 19-Nov-2017 at 05:44:54.

End of official listing