Martello tower F, Marine Parade West, Clacton-on-Sea
- Heritage Category:
- Scheduled Monument
- List Entry Number:
- Date first listed:
- Date of most recent amendment:
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
- Tendring (District Authority)
- Non Civil Parish
- National Grid Reference:
- TM 17286 14298
Reasons for Designation
Martello towers are small coastal artillery forts constructed after the
renewal of war with France in 1803 to defend England against the threat of
invasion. Their design and name were taken from a tower at Martello Bay,
Corsica. The 103 towers in the chain were developed in two phases, those in
East Sussex and Kent being built between 1805 and 1808, and those in Essex and
Suffolk between 1809 and 1812. The south coast towers were numbered 1-74 (from
Beachy Head to Dover) while those to the east were identified by a system of
letters (A-Z from St Osyth to Alderton and AA-CC from Hollesley to Aldeburgh).
The towers are usually circular or near circular in plan, with an average
height of 10m containing three levels. They were built in brick, and often
rendered. The tower walls are both massive (up to 4m thick on the seaward
side) and battered (slope inwards) so as to resist cannon fire. The top floor,
open to sky and supported by a massive central pillar, carried swivelling
cannon or cannons within a deep embrasure. The middle floor served as living
quarters for about 25 men and contained the only external door in the tower,
some 3m-4m above ground level. The semi-basement ground floor was reached
via a trapdoor from the garrison room above and contained the powder magazine,
alcoves for shot, cartridge and general stores, and a water cistern. Some
towers were supported by forward batteries, and many were surrounded by dry
moats and/or water-filled moats, crossed by bridges or drawbridges. The east
coast towers are slightly larger than the earlier examples to the south,
measuring an average of 17.5m in diameter at the base. They are also oval in
plan rather than circular, allowing a still thicker wall to face the direction
of fire. They carried three guns on the fighting top (usually a 24 pound
cannon and two shorter guns or howitzers) set on swivelling carriages within a
clover leaf shaped embrasure, as opposed to the single rotating cannon of the
southern line, and had an additional internal staircase to speed transfer of
ammunition from the middle floor to the roof. East coast towers have four
windows at the middle level (compared to two on the south coast towers).
The defensive strength of the Martello tower system never needed to be tested
before the end of the Napoleonic War. They were brought to readiness on a few
further occasions in the early 19th century, but the whole concept of the
Martello tower was soon rendered obsolete by developments in heavy artillery.
Some served a variety of other uses (such as signalling or coast guard
stations) into the 20th century, and a few saw use as lookout points or even
gun emplacements during the two World Wars. Of the original 29 towers on the
east coast, 17 now survive. Those which survive well and display a diversity
of original components are considered to merit protection.
Eleven martello towers were originally constructed along the 20km stretch of Essex coastline known as the Clacton Beach, some adding to existing batteries or replacing earlier signal stations. The line of towers, identified by the letters A to K, ran from Stone Point on the north bank of the Colne Estuary northwards to Walton on the Naze - with a large circular redoubt at Harwich punctuating the northern end. In addition to tower F, five others now remain standing and are the subject of separate schedulings: those at Stone Point (A), Jaywick (C), Eastness (D), Clacton Wash (E) and Walton on the Naze (K).
Martello tower F is the only remaining moated example on the Essex coast; the others at Beacon Hill, St Osyth (B), Holland Haven (G) and Walton Cliffs (J) were demolished or destroyed by coastal erosion in the 19th century. Tower F has seen some significant alterations, particularly in the 20th century, but the structure remains substantially unchanged and still retains many details dating from the period of construction. It serves as a valued local landmark and moreover, when viewed with the other surviving towers along this part of the coastline, provides a significant insight into the period when modern Britain faced the most significant threat of invasion prior to the major conflicts of the 20th century.
The monument includes a martello tower set within a dry moat and situated at
the junction of Marine Parade West and Tower Road, overlooking the promenade
and sea front to the west of Clacton Pier.
The Listed Grade II tower was originally identified by the letter `F' within the series of towers built along the Essex coastline between 1809 and 1812. It stands complete to its original height of about 10m. The upper portion of the tower (approximately one third) protrudes above the lip of the brick built retaining wall of the moat, which encircles the base at a distance of some 10m and was intended to provide further protection from both cannon fire and ground assault. The date stone above the door, and the denticulated stone mouldings surrounding both the door and the four windows, all protrude slightly from the exposed brickwork indicating that this tower, like many others on the east coast, was originally covered by a layer of coarse stucco. The first floor entrance, to the north west, is still approached by the original cast iron footbridge which spans the ditch on three pairs of stilt- like legs. The section nearest the tower is designed as a drawbridge, capable of being raised to seal the entrance. One of the chains used to raise the bridge remains in place, together with the slots and iron pulleys set into the head of the entrance passage. The arrangement of joists for the floor within the first floor garrison room remains substantially intact, and although the original oak planking has long since been replaced, the flagstone flooring for the officer's chamber (above the vault of the main magazine) remains fully intact. All four of the windows to this floor were framed and glazed during the 1960s, although the apertures still retain some of the iron bars dating from 1818. These were installed to improve ventilation by allowing the wooden shutters (long since removed) to remain open.
The stairways to the roof both survive. The roof itself has been sealed with silver mastic in recent years but the masonry of the parapet and gun step is fully visible, together with the box-like recesses used for ready-use cannon balls and most of the iron hauling-rings used for traversing and preparing the cannons. The cannons themselves were taken down in the 19th century, and the pivots for the three traversing carriages (usually three further cannon barrels embedded, muzzle upwards, in the roof) have also been removed.
A timber-clad observation room, formally a coastguard lookout, stands above the forward gun embrasure, resting on a metal gantry with legs set into concrete blocks on the tower's roof. This structure, together with the attached metal staircase and all associated plumbing and wiring, is excluded from the scheduling.
The ground floor of the tower is accessible via a modern passageway cut through the rear wall of a storage alcove on the south west side. All the other alcoves and casemates remain largely unaltered and the lamp passage to the main magazine (on the seaward side) is particularly well preserved. The original ventilation system included an arrangement of flues set within the thickness of the outer wall and linked to box-like apertures and slots in the internal walls and alcoves of the ground and first floor rooms. This system remains substantially complete.
As with all the Essex martello towers, tower F was armed and provisioned but not garrisoned after its completion in 1812. A report by the Ordnance Barrack Department in that year pointed to the unhealthy nature of the Essex coastline and recommended that the artillerymen be stationed at Weely (some 8km inland) where barracks had been built for the Essex defence regiments in 1803. Throughout the period leading up to the settlement of Europe in 1815, the entire line of Essex towers was in the charge of one `Barrack Sergeant Burnett' of Great Clacton. After 1816 married pensioners from sapper and artillery units were employed as caretakers - Sergeant Major John Baker being appointed to tower F. The tower remained in occupation through the remainder of the 19th century. A report of 1823 states that the ground within the ditch was sown with wheat, and the tower may later have provided the dwelling for Edward Quinn, recorded as the Great Clacton battery keeper in the County Directory for 1848. The battery itself was built at the same time as the tower and included a V-shaped brick wall pointing towards the sea, terraced to the rear and equipped with three 24 pound cannons on traversing carriages. This structure is said to have largely disappeared over the cliffs in 1883, and all further traces have since been lost to coastal erosion and the development of the promenade. Two of the guns from the battery were unearthed and placed on display in nearby Angelfield in 1905. Both, however, were removed at the outset of World War I, ostensibly for fear of attracting the attention of passing German warships.
In the mid-19th century the tower was occupied by Mr T W Hook, and in 1888 the roof came into use as a coastguard look out. Fragments of iron stanchions which evidently carried steps up the outside of the tower from the drawbridge may date from this time. In World War I the tower was commandeered as a piquet station for G Company of the 8th Battalion Essex Regiment. In the inter-war years the tower came into the hands of the local authority, and in 1931 the interior was as opened as museum. The museum was short lived as the tower was returned to military control during World War II and thereafter leased to the Ministry of Defence. The interior remained in use by the Royal Naval Auxilliary Service (RNAS) until 1990. A childrens' zoo was established around the tower in the 1970s but closed in the late 1980s.
A number of features are excluded from the scheduling; these are the meteorological and seismographic equipment installed in the recesses in the tower's parapet, the modern coastguard station on the roof, the steps attached to the north east wall of the moat, all modern concrete platforms and paving on the moat floor, the steps below the ground floor entrance to the tower where they fall within the monument's protection margin, all modern materials and equipment stored within the tower, all modern fixtures and fittings such as the ground floor and garrison room doors, and all components of the modern plumbing and electrical systems, although the structure of the tower where these features stand or are attached to it is included.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
- Legacy System number:
- Legacy System:
Books and journals
Walker, K, 'The Essex Review (October 1938)' in Martello Towers And the Defence of NE Essex in the Napoleonic War, , Vol. 188, (1938), 171-85
AM 107 (AA 41364) FMW reports, Martello Tower F on Marine Parade, (1990)
Disscussion with current occupier, Talbot, R, Martello Tower F, (1998)
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing