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Moated site and Civil War defences at Strensham Castle

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Moated site and Civil War defences at Strensham Castle

List entry Number: 1016939

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Worcestershire

District: Wychavon

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Strensham

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 30-Jun-1969

Date of most recent amendment: 07-Jul-1999

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 31947

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Around 6,000 moated sites are known in England. They consist of wide ditches, often or seasonally water-filled, partly or completely enclosing one or more islands of dry ground on which stood domestic or religious buildings. In some cases the islands were used for horticulture. The majority of moated sites served as prestigious aristocratic and seigneurial residences with the provision of a moat intended as a status symbol rather than a practical military defence. The peak period during which moated sites were built was between about 1250 and 1350 and by far the greatest concentration lies in central and eastern parts of England. However, moated sites were built throughout the medieval period, are widely scattered throughout England and exhibit a high level of diversity in their forms and sizes. They form a significant class of medieval monument and are important for the understanding of the distribution of wealth and status in the countryside. Many examples provide conditions favourable to the survival of organic remains.

The moated site of Strensham Castle is a well-preserved example of a complex medieval manorial moat incorporating rare Civil War defensive earthwork features. The documentary evidence for the site provides an insight into the concerns and lifestyle of its owners. The undisturbed nature of the moat island will preserve evidence of former structures, including both domestic and ancillary buildings and their associated occupation levels. These remains will illustrate the nature of use of the site and the lifestyle of its inhabitants in addition to evidence which will facilitate the dating of construction and subsequent periods of use. The moat ditches can be expected to preserve earlier deposits including evidence for their construction and any alterations during their active history. In addition, the waterlogged nature of the site will preserve environmental information relating to the climate, ecosystem and landscape in which it was set. English Civil War fieldworks are earthworks which were raised during military operations between 1642 and 1645 to provide temporary protection for infantry or to act as gun emplacements. The earthworks, which may have been reinforced with revetting and palisades, consisted of banks and ditches and varied in complexity from simple breastworks to complex systems of banks and interconnected trenches. They can be recognised today as surviving earthworks or as crop or soil marks on aerial photographs. The circumstances and cost of their construction may be referred to in contemporary historical documents. Fieldworks are recorded widely throughout England with concentrations in the main areas of Civil War campaigning. Those with a defensive function were often sited to protect settlements or their approaches. Those with an offensive function were designed to dominate defensive positions and to contain the besieged areas. There are some 150 surviving examples of fieldworks recorded nationally. The Civil War defences at Strensham Castle including the rampart and the outer moat ditch provide information about the status and military position of the Civil War owner, Sir William Russell, in addition to being a rare survival of a fortified Civil War garrison. Modification and reuse of the moated site during the Civil War demonstrates its continuing importance as a defensive feature in the landscape.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the buried and earthwork remains of the moated site and Civil War defences at Strensham Castle. It is situated at Lower Strensham, approximately 600m west of Strensham church which is itself situated on high ground overlooking the River Avon, 300m to the east. The site consists of two concentric square moats surrounding a central island and was the site of a house built by Sir John Russell who obtained a licence to crenellate in 1388. During the Civil War it was the property of Sir William Russell, Royalist and Governor of Worcester, and the outer moat ditch and intermediate ramparts were built around the existing medieval defences during this period. The site was garrisoned with 16 troops of cavalry until it was slighted after the fall of Worcester in 1646. Sir William Russell received special treatment after the fall of Worcester, being excepted from the surrender treaty by the Parliamentarian Major-General Rainsborough and imprisoned. Immediately to the west of the moat is a Victorian farm which is believed to occupy the site of the medieval gateway to the moated site and which may have contained an oratory that James Russell was licenced to build in 1288. The survival of these features is uncertain, however, and this area is not therefore included in the scheduling. The medieval house which once occupied the moat island is believed to have been destroyed in the Civil War slighting. The outer moat ditch, which is water-filled and approximately 10m wide by 1m to 2m deep, is fed in its north east corner by a leat from a stream which runs parallel with the eastern arm of the moat. There is an external bank 4m to 6m wide and 1m to 2m high between the stream and the eastern arm of the moat. The stream also fed a pond at the south east corner of the moat. This pond is no longer visible, having been infilled, and is therefore not included in the scheduling. The outer moat encloses an area of approximately 90m by 78m. Separating the outer from inner moat is a substantial rampart which is approximately 4m higher than both the surrounding land and the inner moat. This rampart is approximately 10m wide at its corners and is built on a bank which is approximately 0.5m higher than the water level of the outer moat. The rampart rises from this platform and incorporates an artillery emplacement situated on a projecting bastion at each of its four corners. The inner moat is believed to be filled by surface water and is approximately 8m to 10m wide by 2m deep. Access to the island is via a causeway in the centre of the western arm which crosses both ditches and is approximately 15m wide. There is some evidence of former bridge abutments over the outer ditch. The island measures approximately 25m by 35m and is approximately 2m higher than the prevailing ground level. It is undulating with a platform approximately 15m by 10m and 0.2m to 0.5m high in its south eastern corner, possibly indicating the site of the medieval house. All modern fencing is excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath it is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
The Victoria History of the County, (1924), 202,433
Atkins, M, The Civil War In Worcestershire, (1995), various
Clapham, A W, Montgomerie, D H, The Victoria History of the County, (1924), 202,431
Other
SMR Cards, (1960)

National Grid Reference: SO 90483 40493

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1016939 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 22-Nov-2017 at 07:42:20.

End of official listing