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Romano-Celtic temple and late prehistoric midden immediately south of Woodcombe Wood, 1.1km north east of Dairy Farm

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Romano-Celtic temple and late prehistoric midden immediately south of Woodcombe Wood, 1.1km north east of Dairy Farm

List entry Number: 1017314

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Wiltshire

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Brixton Deverill

County:

District: Wiltshire

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Kingston Deverill

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 07-Jun-2000

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 33525

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Romano-Celtic temples were built to meet the spiritual needs of the communities they served by venerating the god or spirit considered to dwell in a particular place. The temple building was regarded as the treasure house of its deity and priests rather than as a congregational building and any religious activities, including private worship, communal gatherings, sanctuary and healing, took place outside. Romano-Celtic temples included the temple building and a surrounding sacred precinct or temenos which could be square, circular, rectangular or polygonal in ground plan. The temple building invariably faced due east and was the focus of the site, although it did not necessarily occupy the central position in the temenos. It comprised a cella, or inner temple chamber, an ambulatory or walkway around the cella, and sometimes annexes or antechambers. The buildings were constructed of a variety of materials, including stone, cob and timber, and walls were often plastered and painted both internally and externally. Some temenoi enclosed other buildings, often substantial and built in materials and styles similar to those of the temple; these are generally interpreted as priests' houses, shops or guest houses. Romano-Celtic temples were built and used throughout the Roman period from the mid first century AD to the late fourth/early fifth century AD, with individual examples being used for relatively long periods of time. They were widespread throughout southern and eastern England, although there are no examples in the far south west and they are rare nationally with only about 150 sites recorded in England. In view of their rarity and their importance in contributing to the complete picture of Roman religious practice, including its continuity from Iron Age practice, all Romano-Celtic temples with surviving archaeological potential are considered to be of national importance.

Although the Romano-Celtic temple and late prehistoric midden immediately south of Woodcombe Wood, 1.1km north east of Dairy Farm, have been ploughed, the soilmarks and quantity of votive offerings indicate a temple site of some importance. The complex of archaeological deposits surrounding the temple suggests comparison with the midden sites at East Chisenbury, Potterne and All Cannings Cross. The dark colour of the soil suggests a considerable period of occupation, which is borne out by the artefacts which date from the Late Iron Age almost to the end of the period of Roman occupation in Britain.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a Romano-Celtic temple on the site of a late prehistoric midden, all situated on the summit of Whitecliff Down, one section of a ridge of Upper Chalk on the northern edge of the Deverill valley. The site commands extensive views over rolling chalk country to the south. The temple is visible on aerial photographs as a series of soilmarks revealing the outline of a square building 50m by 50m interpreted as the temenos, or temple precinct, enclosing the smaller cella or temple chamber. Aerial photography has also revealed that the temple precinct is located at the eastern end of a substantial complex of distinct archaeological deposits represented by darker soil, occupying an area some 500m east to west and up to 250m north to south. This area of deposits occupies the summit of Whitecliff Down and may extend beyond the area of the scheduling. To the north west of the temenos is a low oval mound 40m long and 28m wide surviving as an earthwork. Excavations of this mound and the surrounding area in 1803, 1893 and 1924 revealed a large quantity of objects including samples of painted plaster, brooches, fibulae, tweezers, spoons, bracelets and coins dating from the Late Iron Age to the late Roman period, which were probably votive deposits. The mound was also found to contain human bone from at least two individuals, as well as Iron Age and Roman pottery and animal bone, and is thought to be a midden mound. Fieldwork in the 19th and 20th centuries revealed the presence of shallow earthworks, interpreted as hut sites scattered across the area of darker deposits, together with pottery of Iron Age and Romano-British date. However, Neolithic stone tools and a Bronze Age axe were also found on the site, suggesting that that it was in use prior to the Iron Age. When the site was visited by William Cunnington in 1803 the foundations of the temple buildings were visible as low earthworks.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Colt Hoare, R, The Ancient History of Wiltshire: Volume I, (1812), 40
Goddard, E H, 'The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine' in Notes On The Opening of a Tumulus on Cold Kitchen Hill, , Vol. 27, (1897), 279-293
Nan Kivell, R de C, 'The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine' in Objects found at Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverill, , Vol. 43, (1927), 327-332

National Grid Reference: ST 83202 38773

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1017314 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 17-Nov-2017 at 11:22:05.

End of official listing