This browser is not fully supported by Historic England. Please update your browser to the latest version so that you get the best from our website.

Martello tower no 64 at the Crumbles, 1.3km north east of Langney Point

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Martello tower no 64 at the Crumbles, 1.3km north east of Langney Point

List entry Number: 1017355

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: East Sussex

District: Eastbourne

District Type: District Authority

Parish:

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 23-Jan-1978

Date of most recent amendment: 07-Jun-2000

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 32260

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Martello towers are gun towers constructed to defend the vulnerable south eastern coast of England against the threat of ship-borne invasion by Napoleonic forces. Built as a systematic chain of defence in two phases, between 1805-1810 along the coasts of East Sussex and Kent, and between 1808- 1812 along the coasts of Essex and Suffolk, the design of martello towers was based on a fortified tower at Mortella Point in Corsica which had put up a prolonged resistance to British forces in 1793. The towers take the form of compact, free-standing circular buildings on three levels built of rendered brick. The towers of the south coast were numbered 1-74 from east to west, while those of the east coast were identified by a system of letters (A-Z, and then AA-CC) from south to north. Although they exhibit a marked uniformity of design, minor variations are discernible between the southern and eastern groups and amongst individual towers, due mainly to the practice of entrusting their construction to local sub-contractors. Most southern towers are elliptical in plan, whilst the eastern group are oval or cam-shaped externally, with axes at the base ranging between 14.4m by 13.5m and 16.9m by 17.7m. All are circular internally, the battered (inwardly sloping) walls of varying thicknesses, but with the thickest section invariably facing the seaward side. Most stand to a height of around 10m. Many martello towers are surrounded by dry moats originally encircled by counterscarp banks, and/or have cunettes (narrower water defences) situated at the foot of the tower wall. The ground floor was used for storage, with accommodation for the garrison provided on the first floor, and the main gun platform on the roof. The southern towers carried a single 24 pounder cannon, whilst the eastern line carried three guns (usually a 24 pounder cannon and two shorter guns or howitzers). Three large, circular ten- gun towers known as redoubts were also constructed at particularly vulnerable points, at Dymchurch, Eastbourne and Harwich. All three survive. As the expected Napoleonic invasion attempt did not materialise, the defensive strength of the martello tower system was never tested, and the tower design was soon rendered obsolete by new developments in heavy artillery. Many were abandoned and fell into decay or were demolished during the 19th century, although some continued in use into the 20th century as signalling or coastguard stations and a few saw use as look out points or gun emplacements during the two World Wars. Of the original 74 towers on the south coast, 26 now survive, and of the 29 on the east coast, 17 now survive. Those which survive well and display a diversity of original components are considered to merit protection.

Martello tower no 64 survives well, and retains many of its original components. It is one of the surviving examples of a series of low-lying towers, designed to defend a specific stretch of coastline and, as such, the tower contributes towards our understanding and appreciation of the martello tower system. The addition of a gun emplacement during World War II, represents the continued significance of this defensive position well into the 20th century.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a martello tower and a World War II gun emplacement, situated at the head of a shingle beach to the north east of Eastbourne, mid- way between Langney Point and Pevensey Bay. The tower, which is Listed Grade II, lies around 1km north east of its surviving neighbour, tower no 66, which is the subject of a separate scheduling. The pair were constructed in 1805-6 as part of a long chain of low lying towers, spaced at 500m intervals, and designed to guard the vulnerable coastline around Pevensey Bay. The slightly elliptical, brick built tower measures up to about 13m in diameter, and rises to a height of around 10m. Its battered (inwardly sloping) walls, designed to deflect cannon shot, range in thickness from 1.6m to around 4m on the seaward side. Externally, the tower was rendered in a cement mortar to protect the outer skin of bricks, although much of this has now been lost. The tower was constructed on three levels, with a thick central column rising between the basement and the top of the tower, from which springs the barrel vaulted first floor ceiling which supports the gun platform on the roof. A first floor doorway on the landward side, provided the original access into the tower, and was reached from the ground by a retractable ladder. This was sealed and replaced by three larger openings at ground floor level, which were added when the tower was reused during World War II. The first floor was divided into three rooms by wooden partitions and provided accommodation for the garrison of 24 men and one officer. Two fireplaces heated the rooms, which were lit by two windows to the north and south which were later adapted, during World War II, to form gun loops. Access to the ground floor was originally from first floor level, by way of a trap door near the entrance, leading down through a suspended wooden floor. The ground floor was used to store ammunition and supplies, and provision for these included a single, vaulted magazine, partly recessed into the thickness of the outer wall. Rainwater collection tanks were installed beneath the floor, to supplement the water supply, and air vents, linking the ground and first floors, were set into the thickness of the walls. The gun platform is reached from the first floor by an internal stone staircase constructed in the thickest part of the tower wall. The circular roof space was designed to accommodate a 24-pounder canon, which had a range of around 1.5km and could be turned through 360 degrees. The cannon was mounted on a wooden carriage, supported on a central pivot, and was traversed on inner and outer iron running rails by a series of rope pulleys and iron hauling-rings set into the encircling parapet wall. The roof space is partly concealed beneath a concrete World War II gun emplacement which is included in the scheduling. All modern fixtures and fittings and all modern material within the tower are excluded from the scheduling, although the structures to which they are attached are included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Sutcliffe, S, Martello Towers, (1972)
Telling, RM, English Martello Towers: A Concise Guide, (1997)
Telling, R M, Handbook on Martello Towers, (1998)
The Conservation Practice, , South Coast Martello Towers - a report of survey, (1996)

National Grid Reference: TQ 64705 02187

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1017355 .pdf

The PDF will be generated from our live systems and may take a few minutes to download depending on how busy our servers are. We apologise for this delay.

This copy shows the entry on 22-Nov-2017 at 11:19:12.

End of official listing