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Martello tower no 66, 320m north east of Langney Point

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Martello tower no 66, 320m north east of Langney Point

List entry Number: 1017356

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: East Sussex

District: Eastbourne

District Type: District Authority

Parish:

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 17-Jun-1966

Date of most recent amendment: 03-Jul-2000

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 32261

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Martello towers are gun towers constructed to defend the vulnerable south eastern coast of England against the threat of ship-borne invasion by Napoleonic forces. Built as a systematic chain of defence in two phases, between 1805-1810 along the coasts of East Sussex and Kent, and between 1808- 1812 along the coasts of Essex and Suffolk, the design of martello towers was based on a fortified tower at Mortella Point in Corsica which had put up a prolonged resistance to British forces in 1793. The towers take the form of compact, free-standing circular buildings on three levels built of rendered brick. The towers of the south coast were numbered 1-74 from east to west, while those of the east coast were identified by a system of letters (A-Z, and then AA-CC) from south to north. Although they exhibit a marked uniformity of design, minor variations are discernible between the southern and eastern groups and amongst individual towers, due mainly to the practice of entrusting their construction to local sub-contractors. Most southern towers are elliptical in plan, whilst the eastern group are oval or cam-shaped externally, with axes at the base ranging between 14.4m by 13.5m and 16.9m by 17.7m. All are circular internally, the battered (inwardly sloping) walls of varying thicknesses, but with the thickest section invariably facing the seaward side. Most stand to a height of around 10m. Many martello towers are surrounded by dry moats originally encircled by counterscarp banks, and/or have cunettes (narrower water defences) situated at the foot of the tower wall. The ground floor was used for storage, with accommodation for the garrison provided on the first floor, and the main gun platform on the roof. The southern towers carried a single 24 pounder cannon, whilst the eastern line carried three guns (usually a 24 pounder cannon and two shorter guns or howitzers). Three large, circular ten- gun towers known as redoubts were also constructed at particularly vulnerable points, at Dymchurch, Eastbourne and Harwich. All three survive. As the expected Napoleonic invasion attempt did not materialise, the defensive strength of the martello tower system was never tested, and the tower design was soon rendered obsolete by new developments in heavy artillery. Many were abandoned and fell into decay or were demolished during the 19th century, although some continued in use into the 20th century as signalling or coastguard stations and a few saw use as look out points or gun emplacements during the two World Wars. Of the original 74 towers on the south coast, 26 now survive, and of the 29 on the east coast, 17 now survive. Those which survive well and display a diversity of original components are considered to merit protection.

Martello tower no 66 survives well, and retains a substantial proportion of its original components and associated features, including its original gun barrel, which is a rare survival amongst martello towers. As one of the surviving examples of a series of low-lying towers, no 66 also provides a significant insight into the strategic integration of the martello tower system. Recognition of its structural and strategic strengths during the 20th century, against a new invasion threat, is represented by the addition of a substantial gun emplacement during World War II.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a martello tower and a World War II gun emplacement, situated at the head of a shingle beach, immediately south of Sovereign Harbour, on the north eastern outskirts of Eastbourne. The tower, which is Listed Grade II, lies around 1km south west of its surviving neighbour, no.64, the subject of a separate scheduling. The pair formed part of a long chain of low-lying towers, constructed in 1805-6 to guard the vulnerable coastline around Pevensey Bay from the threat of Napoleonic invasion. The slightly elliptical, brick built tower measures up to around 13m in diameter externally, and stands to a height of about 10m. Its battered (inwardly sloping) walls, designed to deflect cannon shot, range in thickness from 1.6m to around 4m on the seaward side. Externally, the tower is rendered in a cement mortar, or stucco, intended to provide further protection to the outer skin of bricks. The tower was constructed on three levels, with a thick central column rising between the basement and the top of the tower, from which springs the barrel vaulted first floor ceiling which supports the gun platform on the roof. Access into the tower was by way of a first floor doorway, which was reached from ground level by a retractable ladder, although this has since been replaced by a new doorway at ground floor level. The first floor was divided into three rooms by wooden partitions, and provided accommodation for the garrison of 24 men and one officer. Two fireplaces heated the rooms, which were lit by two windows to the north east and south west. Access to the ground floor was from first floor level, by way of a trap door near the entrance, leading down through a suspended wooden floor, although this has not survived. The ground floor was used to store ammunition and supplies, and provision for these included a single, vaulted magazine. Rainwater collection tanks were installed beneath the floor, to supplement the water supply, and air vents, linking the ground and first floors, were set into the thickness of the walls. The gun platform is reached from the first floor level by the original, internal stone staircase constructed in the thickest part of the tower wall. The base of the staircase is reached from the ground floor opening by a flight of modern steps. The circular roof space was designed to accommodate a 24-pounder cannon, which had a range of around 1.5km and could be turned through 360 degrees. The cannon was mounted on a rotating wooden carriage, supported on a central pivot, and was traversed on inner and outer running rails using a series of rope pulleys and iron hauling-rings set into the parapet wall. During World War II, a concrete gun emplacement was constructed across the roof of the tower, and this in turn supports a later, temporary coastguard station. Despite these later additions, the gun platform retains many of its original features, including the inner running rail and the original gun barrel, which lies unmounted, within the roof well. The modern coastguard station on the roof of the tower, the modern steps, railings and gates and all modern fixtures and fittings, including all components of the modern electrical system and radar equipment are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath and/or the structures to which these features are attached is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Sutcliffe, S, Martello Towers, (1972)
Telling, RM, English Martello Towers: A Concise Guide, (1997)
Telling, R M, Handbook on Martello Towers, (1998)
The Conservation Practice, , South Coast Martello Towers - a report of survey, (1996)

National Grid Reference: TQ 64376 01226

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1017356 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 15-Dec-2017 at 12:02:07.

End of official listing