Prehistoric enclosure 530m and a rubble bank 500m east of Haythwaite in Scale Knoll Allotment, Barningham Moor


Heritage Category:
Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number:
Date first listed:


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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County Durham (Unitary Authority)
National Grid Reference:
NZ 05225 09087, NZ 05233 08974

Reasons for Designation

In the uplands of northern England a wide variety of prehistoric enclosures can be found. These range from relatively large, rectangular enclosures with earth and stone banks, to smaller, irregular areas enclosed by rubble and boulder walls. Most are dated to the Bronze Age, Iron Age, or early Romano-British period (2000 BC-200 AD). The larger regular enclosures tend to be dated towards the later part of this period and the smaller, irregular enclosures towards the beginning. The majority have an agricultural function, normally for controlling stock. Most are located in the vicinity of associated prehistoric settlements. Prehistoric enclosures survive best in upland areas. Lowland sites are normally only visible through aerial photography. Their variation in form, longevity, and relationship to other monument classes provides important information on the diversity of social organisation and agricultural land use among prehistoric communities. They are an important element of the existing landscape as they provide evidence for earlier forms of agricultural practice. Although this enclosure has been disturbed by stone-robbing in the past, it retains evidence of prehistoric agricultural activity. The adjacent bank survives well, providing evidence for agricultural activity outside the main enclosure. This relationship between the enclosure and the bank should be preserved. Together the bank and the enclosure form an important part of the prehistoric landscape of Barningham Moor, which also includes evidence for other prehistoric agricultural activity, burial practices and settlement patterns. This site will therefore contribute to studies of such prehistoric landscapes and the changing use of land over time.


The monument includes an irregular shaped enclosure and an associated rubble bank. It is situated on Barningham Moor, in the modern sheep-grazing enclosure known as Scale Knoll Allotment. It is bisected by the road which runs from Barningham to East Hope. The monument is on the flat ground at the foot of a glacial knoll. Both the enclosure and the bank are likely to have been used for agricultural purposes, probably for controlling stock. The bank is interpreted as part of a wider field pattern which divided the landscape. It may indicate agricultural activity outside the enclosure. Both are considered to be prehistoric in date. The enclosure is 88m by 88m. It is defined on its south and east sides by the base of the steep slope up to the higher ground, with only a short stretch of rubble bank showing as a stony break of slope on the south side. The enclosure is defined on its south west, north west and north east sides by a low rubble bank. This is most substantial on the north east side, where it is double, and about 3m wide and 0.3m high. It is least substantial on the north west side, where it appears as a slight crest or break of slope. The rubble bank is distinct, and runs NNW from a rise in the road. The bank aligns approximately with the double bank on the south side of the road. The rubble bank is approximately 95m long, 3m wide and up to 0.4m high. It is similar in construction to the banks on the south side of the road, being made of sandstone rubble with an occasional large boulder.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

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This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.

End of official listing

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