Prehistoric enclosure on the west side of Scale Knoll Gill, 400m WSW of Haythwaite, Barningham Moor


Heritage Category:
Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number:
Date first listed:


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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County Durham (Unitary Authority)
National Grid Reference:
NZ 05370 09007

Reasons for Designation

In the uplands of northern England a wide variety of prehistoric enclosures can be found. These range from relatively large, rectangular enclosures with earth and stone banks, to smaller, irregular areas enclosed by rubble and boulder walls. Most are dated to the Bronze Age, Iron Age, or early Romano-British period (2000 BC-200 AD). The larger regular enclosures tend to be dated towards the later part of this period and the smaller, irregular enclosures towards the beginning. Their variation in form, longevity, and relationship to other monument classes provides important information on the diversity of social organisation and land use among prehistoric communities. The majority of enclosures would have had an agricultural function, normally relating to the control of stock. They provide evidence of the prehistoric use and division of the land for agricultural purposes. Survival of these enclosures is best in upland areas where they continue to form an important element in modern day agricultural landscapes. Although the enclosure 400m WSW of Haythwaite has been disturbed by stone- robbing in the past, it retains evidence of its form and location. The enclosure forms an important part of the prehistoric landscape of Barningham Moor, which includes numerous prehistoric carved rocks, and evidence for prehistoric burials, settlements and the agricultural use of the land. This site will therefore contribute to studies of such prehistoric landscapes and the changing patterns of land use over time.


The monument includes a prehistoric enclosure, which had an agricultural function, probably relating to the control of stock. It measures approximately 113m by 76m and is situated on Barningham Moor, in the modern sheep-grazing enclosure known as Scale Knoll Allotment. It is on an area of level ground west of Scale Knoll Gill, at the foot of a prominent knoll. The knoll is the easternmost of four such knolls of glacial origin. The monument is bisected by the road from Barningham to East Hope. The north side of the enclosure is bounded by a substantial rubble bank, about 61m long, 4m wide, and 0.5m high. The south side is bounded by a stony lynchet at the base of the slope leading up to the knoll. On the east and west sides of the enclosure, low natural ridges lead down from the knoll, forming a sheltered `bay'. Traces of rubble walling survive on the flanks of these ridges. The interior of the enclosure is relatively stone free, apart from two mounds of clearance material. One of these is sub-circular, 5m in diameter and 0.4m high. The other heap is more linear, and is approximately 11m long, 4m wide, and 0.5m high. The surface of the road is excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number:
Legacy System:


This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.

End of official listing

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