Dam and millpond 150m east of Cheersgreen Farm
- Heritage Category:
- Scheduled Monument
- List Entry Number:
- Date first listed:
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This copy shows the entry on 13-Oct-2019 at 21:08:21.
The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
- Cheshire East (Unitary Authority)
- Peover Superior
- National Grid Reference:
- SJ 75265 73606, SJ 75397 73647
Reasons for Designation
Watermills were in use in the British Isles from the 6th century until recent times. The mill was driven by a flow of water propelling a wheel with paddles or troughs and the rotation of this wheel was transferred to the machinery. The flow of water was maintained by a dam and the head of water trapped behind it. The amount of water was controlled by a sluice gate feeding into a canal known as a leat. Watermills replaced the hand mills in use in all earlier homes and soon developed into a very profitable source of income for the owners. This income was controlled by the lords of the manors in the medieval period and therefore mills are recorded as an essential part of the manorial holdings. The presence of a watermill in a medieval context is an important indicator of the status of the surrounding estate. The dam and millpond at Hollytree Cottage are well preserved as part of a garden enclosure. Restoration of the sluice and a body of water will have preserved the previously waterlogged silts and organic remains in the bottom of the original millpond. In spite of the lowering of the original water level, most of the millpond survives undisturbed by later agriculture or garden works. In addition the leat survives well since it forms a ditch now incorporated into a modern field boundary. The dam will have preserved an older ground surface as well as revealing details of the construction of the earthwork. There may also be parts of the original timber sluice works in the body of the dam, relating to the small leats which appear on the south west side of the earthwork.
The monument includes a dam and millpond situated in the garden of Holly Tree
Cottage. A leat, which is now dry, leads from the south western end of the dam
and runs towards Cheersgreen Farm. The associated mill cannot now be traced.
The dam is an earthwork bank, 52m long and 5m wide at the base. It stands 3m
high on average and 4.5m high at the centre. The middle of the dam has been
breached and a modern sluice inserted in the gap which is 8m wide. The dam
has formed a pond, originally about 50m wide and now 30m wide at the dam. The
pond is about 80m long. Soil at the edge of this pond is black and clearly
represents the bed of the original millpool. This black soil is at least 0.5m
deep beside the pool. The leat is a ditch, about 5m wide, leading from the
south western end of the dam and running south west for 50m before turning
west and running for 100m. The ditch then runs northwards for 55m down a slope
and into the brook. At this point it is 10m wide. This is the tailrace for the
mill allowing the water to flow away back to the brook behind the mill.
In 1977 the organic deposits behind the dam were analysed and a date around
1430 was proposed for the dam and pool. This analysis also showed that the
pool was abandoned in around 1750 and was dry until it was reinstated in 1977.
The concrete abutments for the new sluice gate, the gate itself and the post
and wire fences on the top of the dam are excluded from the scheduling,
although the ground beneath them is included.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
- Legacy System number:
- Legacy System:
Cheshire SMR, (1987)
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing