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The Castle Goff Stone and Valley Truckle Cross in St Julitta's churchyard

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: The Castle Goff Stone and Valley Truckle Cross in St Julitta's churchyard

List entry Number: 1018207

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Camelford

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 09-Oct-1981

Date of most recent amendment: 24-Jul-1998

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 30448

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Early Christian memorial stones are inscribed free-standing stones commemorating named individuals and dating to the early medieval period (c.AD 400-1100). The stones are erect, roughly dressed or undressed slabs, bearing incised inscriptions, usually set in one or more vertical lines down one face of the slab, although in four examples the text runs horizontally across the slab. All except two recorded texts are in Latin and, depending on their date, may be inscribed in a script of Romanised capitals or an insular form of lower case lettering called miniscules, or a mixture of the two. Six stones also have inscriptions in an Irish script called ogham. Most inscriptions are simple, bearing a personal name and often stating a family relationship, such as `filii' (son of), to another personal name. Fourteen stones contain elements of the simple inscriptions within a longer, complex inscriptive formula, often including the phrase `hic iacet' (here lies). Additional decoration is found on very few stones and usually comprises a cross within a circle. Early examples, prior to the eighth century AD, may bear an early Christian symbol called a Chi Rho monogram, compounding the first two Greek letters of the name `Christ'. Early Christian memorial stones are largely restricted to areas which retained Celtic traditions during the early medieval period, with at least 139 recorded from Wales. In England, they are almost entirely confined to the south-west peninsula; of the 56 recorded examples, 37 occur in Cornwall, 11 in Devon, a group of 5 in Dorset, and single examples in Somerset, Hampshire and Shropshire. As a very rare and diverse class of monument important for our understanding of the social organisation and the development of literacy and Christianity during the early medieval period, all surviving groundfast examples of early Christian memorial stones are considered worthy of protection.

The early Christian memorial stone known as the Castle Goff stone survives well, despite having been reused to prop up a barn wall in the past. Its inscription is clear though not easily legible. The inscription itself is of importance from a period generally lacking in such historical references. It is also a rare example of a memorial stone in Cornwall with an early English inscription rather than the more usual Latin. The location here of the Valley Truckle Cross, a medieval wayside cross, represents an unusual association.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes an early Christian memorial stone, known as the Castle Goff Stone and a medieval wayside cross, known as the Valley Truckle Cross in the churchyard at Lanteglos by Camelford. The Castle Goff Stone survives as an upright granite shaft measuring 2m high by 0.45m wide at the base tapering to 0.32m at the top and is 0.19m thick at the base tapering to 0.14m at the top. The principal faces are orientated north-south. The south principal face bears an inscription incised in an early medieval form of script derived from Roman style capitals running down the shaft in two lines; a third line of the inscription is incised on the west side. The inscription has been read as `AELSELD 7 GENERED WOHTE YSNE SYBSTEL FOR AELWYNEYS SOUL 7 FOR HEYSEL' which translates as `Aelsel and Genere made this family stone or place of peace for Aelwine's soul and for themselves or Heysel'. The inscription is visible though not clearly legible. This inscription is unusual as it is written in Old English rather than Latin, and contains English names. The use of English names suggests that this stone dates from the 11th century. The Castle Goff Stone was first recorded in 1858 being used to prop up the wall of a barn at Lanteglos. There was a local tradition that the stone came from near the Castle Goff earthworks, 1.25km to the north west of the church. By 1870 the Stone was purchased by the Rector and moved to the Rectory gardens and in 1877 a cross head was fixed on top of the Stone. The cross head was removed in the 1890s and in 1900 the Castle Goff Stone was moved into the churchyard and erected in its present position. The Valley Truckle Cross survives as an upright granite shaft with a round, `wheel' head, its principal faces orientated north-south. The overall height of the cross is 1.43m. The head measures 0.69m wide by 0.13m thick. Both principal faces bear a relief equal limbed cross; a wide bead encircles the outer edge of the head on both sides. The top of the head has been fractured on the north face. Immediately below the head, at the neck are two projections, one to either side of the shaft. The shaft measures 0.46m wide by 0.17m thick. This cross was discovered with its head buried in the ground near a blacksmiths shop at Valley Truckle, a crossroads on a main route into Cornwall from the east. Valley Truckle is on the A39, a major ancient and modern route into north Cornwall, where it is crossed by a route to Boscastle on the north coast and a minor route to Advent on Bodmin Moor. It had been used for the binding of iron tires on cart wheels; a part of the shaft had been rounded off for this purpose. By 1896 when the historian, Langdon, recorded it the cross was in the Rectory garden, some time after it was re-erected in the churchyard. The metalled surface of the footpath between the memorial stone and the cross, the cement gutter or drain to the north of the memorial stone, the chest tomb to the east and another to the west of the memorial stone, the chest tomb to the west and the flat gravestone to the east of the cross, where they fall within the monument's protective margin, are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Langdon, A G, Old Cornish Crosses, (1896)
Langdon, A G, Stone Crosses in East Cornwall, (1996)
Langdon, A G, Stone Crosses in East Cornwall, (1996)
Okasha, E, Corpus of Early Christian Inscribed Stones of South-west Britain, (1993)
Other
Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SX 08/18: Pathfinder Series 1325 Source Date: 1986 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

National Grid Reference: SX 08814 82327

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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End of official listing