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Medieval hospital 530m south east of Losehill Hall

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Medieval hospital 530m south east of Losehill Hall

List entry Number: 1018869

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Derbyshire

District: High Peak

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Castleton

National Park: PEAK DISTRICT

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 15-Feb-1999

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 29938

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

A medieval hospital is a group of buildings housing a religious or secular institution which provided spiritual and medical care. The idea for such institutions originated in the Anglo-Saxon period although the first definite foundations were created by Anglo-Norman bishops and queens in the 11th century. Documentary sources indicate that by the mid 16th century there were around 800 hospitals. A further 300 are also thought to have existed but had fallen out of use by this date. Half of the hospitals were suppressed by 1539 as part of the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Some smaller institutions survived until 1547 when they were dissolved by Edward VI. Many of these smaller hospitals survived as almshouses, some up to the present day. Despite the large number of hospitals known from documentary sources to have existed, generally only the larger religious ones have been exactly located. Few hospitals retain upstanding remains and very few have been examined by excavation. In view of these factors all positively identified hospitals retaining significant medieval remains will be identified as nationally important.

The earthwork and buried remains of Castleton medieval hospital are particularly well preserved and retain significant archaeological remains. Hospitals usually survive as ruins or by being incorporated into later buildings. Earthwork remains such as those at Castleton are unusual and provide a rare opportunity for the preservation of stratified archaeological and environmental evidence. The combined archaeological, environmental and documentary evidence will enhance our knowledge and understanding of the construction, history, and development of hospitals and their place in the wider medieval landscape.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the earthwork and buried remains of Castleton medieval hospital. The site is situated on the south side of Castleton Road on a low knoll which slopes to the south towards the flood plain of Peakshole Water. The hospital, known as `The Hospital of the Castle of Peak', was founded in the early 12th century by the Peverel family and was dedicated to St Mary the Blessed Virgin. It appears as a royal foundation in John of Gaunt's register dated 1372-1376. The last warden was in office between 1536-1542, after which the hospital was dissolved. The remains include three sides of a large sub-rectangular platform defined by a substantial bank, representing the site of a building, measuring approximately 35m by 27m. The north and east sides of the platform are the most clearly defined but oval shaped hollows to the south west of the platform suggest that some post-medieval quarrying has taken place. A low, curved mound inside the platform may also be related to quarrying activity. At its eastern end, the platform is divided from north to south across most of its width by a low bank. This is interpreted as an internal dividing wall. The size of this building, together with evidence that it was a substantial construction, indicate that this was a major building belonging to the hospital. Medieval hospital complexes usually included a range of buildings and features often including medicinal herb gardens. The precise function of the building along with the wider organisation and layout of Castleton hospital are not yet fully understood. Running between, and parallel to, Castleton Road and the northern side of the hospital is a sunken track which survives to a width of approximately 5m. This would originally have provided access to the hospital building and may have been the predecessor to the modern Castleton Road. The track links to another sunken track which runs parallel to the eastern side of the hospital and has been infilled close to its northern end. This track, which survives to a width of approximately 8m, cut into the natural slope of the field, runs to the south and continues for about 20m beyond the building platform. It is possible that this track led to a fording point on Peakshole Water which once passed much closer to the hospital building. To the east of the junction between the two tracks is a small rectangular building platform, the southern side of which has been degraded by vehicle erosion. The platform measures approximately 14m by 5m and is defined by low banks. The platform may represent an annex to the main hospital building. All fences and gates are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Cox, J C, The Victoria History of the County of Derbyshire, (1907), 86
Lysons, Reverend D, Lysons, S, Magna Britannia. A concise topographical account of several coun, (1817), 72
Other
SMR no. 3336, Castleton Medieval Hospital,

National Grid Reference: SK 15547 83329

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1018869 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 20-Nov-2017 at 03:16:17.

End of official listing