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The Abbey Barn at Abbey Farm

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: The Abbey Barn at Abbey Farm

List entry Number: 1019389

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Somerset

District: Mendip

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Glastonbury

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 12-Jan-1932

Date of most recent amendment: 06-Oct-2000

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 29699

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Following the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539 many monastic buildings were either robbed of their stone or converted to other uses. However, the larger monastic stone barns, which were built with a high degree of craftsmanship, were specialised buildings which remained serviceable as barns despite their passing into private ownership and this has in many cases led to their survival. Those monastic barns at some distance from their parent religious house are often called tithe barns as their purpose was to store the tithe (traditionally a tenth part of the annual produce) collected from those tenant farmers who were working land owned by the abbey, the tithe payment going to support the community of the monastery and the upkeep of its properties. However, a barn built on an abbey farm adjacent to a monastery is more correctly known as an abbey manor barn as it was used for the most part to store produce from the abbey's own immediate holding, although this would not have precluded the storage of crops from adjacent manors or granges. The Abbey Barn at Glastonbury was the abbey manor barn as it is sited just outside the precinct walls of the abbey complex. It would have stood with other agricultural buildings as part of the manor farm or home grange of the abbey. The Abbey Barn is one of only four surviving monastic barns in Somerset associated with Glastonbury Abbey and the only one to stand in such close proximity to the abbey itself. Its importance is further enhanced by its use, in the late 20th century, as a repository for old agricultural machinery within a museum setting. This allows public viewing of both the interior and exterior features of the barn. Despite some repairs, mainly concentrated on the roof, the Abbey Barn retains much of its original medieval fabric and ecclesiastical detail and it contains architectural and archaeological evidence which will be informative about the religion, lives, and activities, of the monastic community of Glastonbury Abbey in the medieval period and how that community related to the wider world.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes The Abbey Barn, of 14th century date, which lies just outside the perimeter of the walled precinct of Glastonbury Abbey on the corner of Chilkwell Street and Bere Lane. The barn, which is a Listed Building Grade I, was almost certainly constructed by masons from Glastonbury Abbey for the abbey farm. It is of exceptional architectural quality and was clearly intended to reflect the abbey's important role in the region. Glastonbury Abbey is the subject of a seperate scheduling. The Abbey Barn is constructed mostly of limestone rubble with random courses of orange marlstone. The roof structure consists of eight raised base-cruck trusses set on horizontal timber baulks and carrying a superstructure of upper crucks. Each dividing roof truss is accompanied by an external stone buttress to provide added support. The resulting building is of seven bays with opposed waggon porches flanking the central bay. The huge arched waggon entrances allowed access to horse drawn wagons which could pass through the barn after unloading without the need to turn. In addition, there are two arched pedestrian entrances in the side walls of each porch. The barn measures 29m in overall length by 10m wide, although the width is doubled at the central bay by the additional width of the two porches. Each of the individual bays is about 3.4m wide and, other than the central bay, each is lit by opposing wall vents splayed on the inside; the walls of the barn are also studded with numerous ventilation holes contributing to the dry and airy conditions required for the optimum storage of crops and other produce. Both gable ends of the barn have two cross-shaped vent windows, splayed within, below a traceried window of three small trefoiled lights which sits in the apex of the gable. On the exterior walls, immediately below the windows in the main gables and above those in the porches, are the emblems of the four evangelists: St Mark represented by a winged lion on the south, St Luke by a winged bull on the north, St John by an eagle on the west, and St Matthew by a winged man on the east. Later alterations to the barn include a medieval or post-medieval rebuild of the gable end of the south east porch which may have been subject to subsidence after it was first constructed. A replacement of about one third of the timber roof trusses, together with a total re-tiling of the barn and porch roofs, took place during repairs in 1976-77. This provided the opportunity for dendrochronological (tree ring study) dating of the original roof timbers which indicated a felling date for the trees used of between 1343-61 and consequently a mid-late 14th century date for their use in the roof structure of the barn. Glastonbury Abbey was one of the richest foundations in England at the time of the Domesday Book (1086) and it boasted an impressive abbey church and suite of monastic buildings by the 14th century. The Abbey Barn is well documented in manorial rolls and surveys of Glastonbury Abbey which survive from the 14th century onwards. Records show a series of repairs to the thatched roof of the barn from its earliest reference in 1302 up until 1365, prior to the replacement of thatch by tiles. The added weight of the tiling may also have occasioned the replacement of the roof trusses with those timbers which produced the felling date of 1343-61. That the barn was part of the abbey manor farm appears to be confirmed by an abbey document of 1517 recording that it stood in a farmyard or grange, together with other agricultural buildings which have subsequently disappeared. All sign posts, agricultural and other items, and fencing both in the barn and within its 2m protective margin are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Gryspeerdt, M, Glastonbury Abbey Barn, (1995)
Bond, C J, Weller J B, , 'Essays in Honour of the 90th Birthday of C A Ralegh Radford' in The Somerset Barns of Glastonbury Abbey, (1991), 68-73

National Grid Reference: ST 50365 38553

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1019389 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 12-Dec-2017 at 12:21:58.

End of official listing