Round 390m north east of Carwarthen


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1019611

Date first listed: 24-Nov-2000


Ordnance survey map of Round 390m north east of Carwarthen
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This copy shows the entry on 12-Dec-2018 at 22:14:07.


The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Cornwall (Unitary Authority)

Parish: St. Just-in-Roseland

National Grid Reference: SW 84961 37537


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Rounds are small embanked enclosures, one of a range of settlement types dating to between the later Iron Age and the early post-Roman period. Usually circular or oval, they have a single earth and rubble bank and an outer ditch, with one entrance breaking the circuit. Excavations have produced drystone supporting walls within the bank, paved or cobbled entrance ways, post built gate structures, and remains of timber, turf or stone built houses of oval or rectangular plan, often set around the inner edge of the enclosing bank. Other evidence includes hearths, drains, gullies, pits and rubbish middens. Evidence for industrial activities has been recovered from some sites, including small scale metal working and, among the domestic debris, items traded from distant sources. Some rounds are associated with secondary enclosures, either abutting the round as an annexe or forming an additional enclosure. Rounds are viewed primarily as agricultural settlements, the equivalents of farming hamlets. They were replaced by unenclosed settlement types by the 7th century AD. Over 750 rounds are recorded in the British Isles, occurring in areas bordering the Irish Seas, but confined in England to south west Devon and especially Cornwall, where many more examples may await discovery. Most recorded examples are sited on hillslopes and spurs. Rounds are important as one of the major sources of information on settlement and social organisation of the Iron Age and Roman periods in south west England. Consequently, sites with significant surviving remains will normally be considered to be of national importance.

The round 390m north east of Carwarthen survives reasonably well. Despite reduction of the earthworks by ploughing, and limited excavation, it remains substantially intact. The old land surface underlying the enclosing bank, and remains of buildings and structures and other deposits associated with the ramparts and external ditch, and with the interior, will survive. The location, on a sheltered easterly slope, demonstrates the role of topography in the siting of later prehistoric to Romano-British enclosures. The excavated evidence for occupation from the later prehistoric to early medieval periods illustrates the longevity of this settlement type.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The scheduling includes a later prehistoric to Romano-British round, with evidence for early medieval and possible Bronze Age occupation shown by limited excavation. It is situated on a moderate north east slope above the head of a stream feeding St Just Creek, east of the Carrick Roads. The round is sub-oval in plan, measuring approximately 78m north east-south west by 71m north west-south east overall. It has an earth and stone enclosing bank, visible on the north, east, and south sides as a scarp around 10m across and up to 1.3m high, with slight traces on the west and south west sides. The excavations produced evidence for the stone revetment of the inside of the bank, an entrance on the west side, and a buried external ditch 1.8m-3m deep and at least 1.5m wide.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 32933

Legacy System: RSM


Books and journals
Opie, S A, Excavations in the Roseland Peninsula, (1939)
Padel, O J, Cornish placename elements, (1985), 50-54
SW 83 NW 14, Palmer, J, Ordnance Survey Index Card, (1968)
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map Source Date: 1880 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map Source Date: 1907 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
Title: St Just in Roseland Tithe Apportionment Source Date: 1840 Author: Publisher: Surveyor: 716, 717

End of official listing