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Newcastle upon Tyne town defences: section of curtain wall including Plummer Tower and a 17th century bastion

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Newcastle upon Tyne town defences: section of curtain wall including Plummer Tower and a 17th century bastion

List entry Number: 1019812

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Newcastle upon Tyne

District Type: Metropolitan Authority

Parish:

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 18-Jan-1930

Date of most recent amendment: 23-Apr-2003

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 32750

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Between the Roman and the post-medieval periods a large number of English towns were provided with defences. These defences also served to mark the limits of the town or its intended size and could be used to defend the town in times of trouble. Their symbolic role in marking out the settlement was also significant. Newcastle was first granted permission to build a town wall in 1265. It enclosed the Roman and medieval core of the town and served to form its protection throughout the medieval and post-medieval periods. Building of the wall began on the north side of the town and continued around the eastern and western sides simultaneously. During its construction, the planned line of the walls was changed; on the west side, where it had been heading towards the castle, the walls turn abruptly south towards the river, and on the east side, they make an eastwards extension in order to enclose the suburb of Pandon, granted to Newcastle upon Tyne in 1298. The curtain wall is of squared and coursed sandstone blocks, although the ashlar varies considerably in character and quality. Where excavation has taken place, the wall is seen to have been constructed in a narrow foundation slot, straight onto the ground surface or on a broad raft of sandstone blocks. Above the foundation base there is a double chamfered plinth which in some places is stepped down in order to accommodate a change in the gradient. The wall also displays great variety in thickness and height; the height range from the top of the footings to the wall walk of all the upstanding sections of the curtain wall is from 4.4m to 6.6m. The thickness of the wall immediately above the double chamfered plinth ranges from 1.98m to 3.3m. The curtain wall was surmounted by a parapet walkway, and where it survives it varies in height from 1.53m to 1.68m above the top of the wall walk. The wall contained 17 interval towers which projected forwards from the line of the wall and about 40 intermediate turrets, normally flush with the outer face of the curtain wall but overhanging the internal face on a series of corbels. Gateways were built at Newgate, Westgate, Closegate, Sandgate, Pandongate and Pilgrimgate, each defended by a pair of gatehouses. A lesser gateway at Sallyport and two posterns, Blackfriars and Whitefriars, were also built. The wall was strengthened by an external ditch up to 20m wide and 4.5m deep separated from the wall by a berm (a level space between a defensive wall and a ditch in order to defend it). The ditch, known as the King's Dykes, was completed in 1316, sometime before completion of the wall. The defences continued to function as the town's main form of defence through to the 19th century. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the towers and some of the gates became the meeting places of a variety of town companies who generally added an upper storey to form a meeting hall. The defences were reinforced during the English Civil War in 1638 when England was threatened by invasion from Scotland. The town was stormed in 1644 by the Scots acting in support of Parliament; the defences were subsequently repaired. In 1745, at the time of the Jacobite uprising, the defences were repaired against the rebels which included walling up all of the gateways. The defences were last repaired at the time of the Napoleonic Wars in the early 19th century. Subsequently, when the threat had passed and with the continuing development of Newcastle upon Tyne, their function as a defensive town boundary ceased. The walls were allowed to fall into decay, and several sections were levelled in the years following 1823. Newcastle upon Tyne's town defences survive in various states of preservation. Some parts of the curtain wall still stand to full height, and the towers and turrets are also clearly visible. The ditch is also clearly visible for part of the western side as a pronounced earthwork. Other parts of the defences are no longer visible above the present surface of the ground, but in these areas sections of the walls and the ditch survive below ground level as buried features, and sufficient evidence exists for their positions to be accurately identified. Given the role played by the town defences in one of England's major commercial towns, and their contribution towards an understanding of medieval and later urban development, all sections of Newcastle's town defences that exhibit significant archaeological remains are considered to be nationally important. In spite of the fact that they have been modified in the post-medieval period, the standing and buried remains of the medieval town defences in Croft Street survive reasonably well. The length of curtain wall containing a tower is a rare survival, particularly on the east side of the circuit, where the curtain wall and its associated features are visible in few locations. The survival of a 17th century bastion, constructed to strengthen the defences of Newcastle during the Civil War, is the only surviving example known on the defensive circuit, and this enhances the importance of the remains. As a monument which is visible to the public, this section of Newcastle's town defences serves as an important educational and recreational resource which will increase our understanding of how Newcastle's defences developed through time.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument is situated at the southern end of Croft Street immediately opposite Plummer House. It includes the upstanding and buried remains of part of the town defences of Newcastle upon Tyne. The section of town defences in Croft Street represent part of the eastern side of the circuit and includes two short lengths of curtain wall, a tower and a 17th century bastion. The tower and the upstanding length of curtain wall are a Listed Building Grade I. Further sections of the town defences to the south and west are the subject of separate schedulings. Newcastle upon Tyne town defences were constructed from the mid-13th century to the middle or late 14th century enclosing an area of more than 60ha; the riverside lengths of curtain wall were added during the 15th century. The masonry defences were strengthened by a berm and a ditch, except on the south side where they were bounded by the River Tyne. Gateways were built at the principal points of entry to the town. Internally a cobbled inter-mural lane followed the line of the defences. The defences were refurbished during the medieval period and were reinforced and repaired several times during the post-medieval period. The first length of curtain wall within this section is attached to the south side of the tower and is 7.6m long, standing 4.25m high to the parapet walkway. Rising above the walkway, the parapet is 1.15m high and is complete with its ridged coping stones. Two building phases are visible in this short stretch of curtain wall indicating that the curtain wall and the attached tower were built separately. Excavation in 1989 showed that the wall has rubble foundations within a trench 0.70m deep. On the external face, the curtain wall retains a double chamfer. Within the thickness of the curtain wall near its junction with the tower, there is a small irregularly shaped chamber; although not visible today, antiquarians recorded the existence of a blocked doorway connecting this chamber to the ground floor of the tower. It is thought that the area of the modern mural chamber was, in medieval times, the site of a short stair rising from within a corner of the tower giving access to the wall walk. The second length of curtain wall, attached to the north side of the tower, is about 6m long and is thought to survive as a buried feature below the 19th century extension to the north of Plummer Tower. The tower, known as Plummer Tower projects some 4m from the outer face of the curtain wall. It is visible as a semicircular shaped structure constructed of coursed and squared ashlar sandstone standing up to 4.5m high. Above two of the lower courses of the tower there is an external chamfer course. Excavation in 1989 showed that the tower was founded on a single course of angular sandstone blocks laid within a trench about 0.28m deep. Although the interior of the tower has been much altered, it is thought that it contained a single chamber covered by a vaulted roof. At the time of the Civil War, Plummer Tower was converted into an artillery bastion by the addition of an outwork surrounding the tower on its north, east and south sides. During the 1989 excavations part of this structure was uncovered; it was revealed to consist of an arrow-shaped stone built structure whose outer face was visible as ashlar sandstone with a rubble core resting on reused wooden planks. Within the area examined a single wooden beam was set horizontally within the stone wall where it would have projected beyond the wall of the bastion; this feature is thought to have served as a form of timber lacing. Outside the stone built bastion there was a berm 1m wide flanked by what was thought to be a substantial flat-bottomed ditch. Partial excavation of the deposits within the ditch produced pieces of pottery and other objects dating from the mid- to late 17th century. Three musket balls were recovered from excavation trenches to the north, east and south of the bastion. Although the full extent of the bastion was not uncovered, its form suggests that it is of arrow head type with the point of the arrow immediately opposite, and 7m from, the centre of Plummer Tower. The tower was modified further during the 17th century when it housed the Company of Cutlers and during the 18th century when it was obtained by the Company of Masons. During the 18th century an upper storey and a new western facade were added and subsequently a new external stair was built to the south side of the tower. In the 19th century, when the upper levels of the curtain wall were levelled to provide building stone, an extension to the north of the tower was added. The 18th century upper part of the original medieval tower, above the chamfered offset plinth, is excluded from the monument. The drain pipe attached to the east wall of the tower and all fixtures and fittings associated with the conversion and use of the tower for commercial purposes, are excluded from the scheduling although the structure to which they are attached is included. The 19th century extension on the north side of the tower, the 18th century western facade, the external staircase on the west face of the curtain wall and all paving, walling and hard surfaces are excluded from the scheduling although the ground beneath all of these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Nolan, J, 'Archaeologia Aeliana ser 5' in The Town Wall, Newcastle Upon Tyne: Orchard and Croft Street, , Vol. 21, (1993), 93-149
Other
T&W 1553,

National Grid Reference: NZ 25199 64418

Map

Map
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This copy shows the entry on 22-Sep-2017 at 12:29:45.

End of official listing