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Long Work 16th and 17th century copper mines, 400m north west of Waterfall Buttress

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Long Work 16th and 17th century copper mines, 400m north west of Waterfall Buttress

List entry Number: 1019944

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Allerdale

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Above Derwent

National Park: LAKE DISTRICT

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 25-Jun-2001

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 34953

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Copper was extracted in Britain intermittently from the Early Bronze Age (about 2000 BC) until the early 20th century, after when the industry was confined to by-product production and small scale reworkings of mines and dumps. There is very limited evidence for copper mining before the 15th and 16th centuries, and most known sites are of later date, principally of the industry's 18th and 19th century peak after it had been revitalised by developments in smelting technology. In the 18th and 19th centuries, as perhaps it had also been in prehistory, British production was important on a European scale. Nucleated copper mines are a prominent type of field monument produced by copper mining. They consist of a range of features grouped around the adits and/or shafts of a mine. The simplest examples contain merely a shaft or adit with associated spoil tip, but more complex and, in general, later examples may include remains of engine houses for pumping and/or winding from shafts, housing, lodging shops and offices and power transmission features such as wheel pits and leats. The majority of nucleated copper mines are of 18th to 20th century date, earlier mining being normally by rakes, opencuts and open levels, and including scattered ore dressing features. An essential part of a copper mining site is the ore works, where the mixture of ore and waste rock extracted from the ground was separated (dressed) to form a smeltable concentrate. The range of processes can be summarised as: picking out clean lumps of ore and waste; hammering (breaking down lumps to a smaller size by manual hammering or by mechanical crushing); jigging (separation of gravel-sized material by shaking on a sieve in a tub of water; and buddling (separation of finer material by washing away the lighter waste in a current of water). Field remains of ore works include crushing devices, separating structures and tanks and tips of distinctive waste from the various processes, together with associated water supplies. Simple ore dressing devices had been developed by the 16th century, but the large majority date from the 18th to 20th centuries, when technology evolved rapidly. During English Heritage's national evaluation of the copper industry, 130 sites were assessed. This is a highly select sample of the numbers of sites that historically existed in England; although there are no national estimates, for the south west alone an estimate has been made of over 10,000 sites. It is considered that protection by scheduling is appropriate for less than 50, with alternative means of protection or management being considered more appropriate for the other nationally important sites.

Long Work copper mine and its associated spoil heaps, dressing floors and prospecting pits and trenches survives reasonably well and is a rare example of a 16th and 17th century copper mine which has remained largely untouched since abandonment. As one of the mines owned by the Mines Royal Company it is of major importance for the study of post-medieval mining in Britain, and in particular for the degree or otherwise of German influence on British mining technology.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes Long Work 16th and 17th century opencut copper mines, prospecting trenches and pits, ore dressing floors, and the remains of an associated building. It is located on the hillside on the western side of Newlands Beck in the upper reaches of the Newlands Valley. An opencut is a process of mineral extraction whereby the ore is worked directly from the surface resulting in a linear opening along the mineral vein. Such extraction processes typically survive as a gully or ravine. The Long Work Vein runs from east to west and yielded the ores malachite and copper pyrite; the remains are described in spacial order from east to west. At NY22871619 are two discrete ore dressing floors located close to Newlands Beck, each consisting of a small area of dressing waste and each possessing an in situ stone mortar or anvil for hand-crushing the copper ore. A short distance to the west there is a long, linear opencut with considerable amounts of spoil and dressing waste to the north and a discrete circular dressing floor to the south. Also to the south of the opencut are the fragmentary remains of an associated drystone building of unknown function. Between the opencut and Far Tongue Gill there are traces of small prospecting trenches and pits. At NY22671620 Far Tongue Gill has cut through a spoilheap associated with an opencut on the western side of the gill. This opencut is a long, linear feature with spoil and dressing waste on its north side. A short distance north of the spoil and dressing waste two lumps of gossan, the weathered surface of the mineral vein, have been dumped. On the steepening hillslope to the west of the opencut there are a number of small prospecting pits and trenches. Documentary sources indicate that the earliest working at Long Work commenced about 1565 and that the mine was one of many in the Keswick area which were worked by the Mines Royal Company who, during the 16th and 17th centuries, were leaders in European mining technology. Extensions to the mine were made in about 1690 and this latter work continued until the very early years of the 18th century after which the mines were abandoned. A drystone-walled sheepfold constructed partly within the opencut west of Far Tongue Gill and upon the opencut's associated spoilheap and dressing waste, together with a number of wooden fenceposts, are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Adams, J, Mines of the Lake District Fells, (1995), 32-3

National Grid Reference: NY 22699 16202

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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This copy shows the entry on 18-Nov-2017 at 08:10:04.

End of official listing