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Romano-British farmstead and post-medieval charcoal burning site 570m north east of Ladybower Inn

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Romano-British farmstead and post-medieval charcoal burning site 570m north east of Ladybower Inn

List entry Number: 1020413

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Derbyshire

District: High Peak

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Derwent

National Park: PEAK DISTRICT

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 11-Dec-2001

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 31309

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

The East Moors in Derbyshire includes all the gritstone moors east of the River Derwent. It covers an area of 105 sq km, of which around 63% is open moorland and 37% is enclosed. As a result of recent and on-going archaeological survey, the East Moors area is becoming one of the best recorded upland areas in England. On the enclosed land the archaeological remains are fragmentary, but survive sufficiently well to show that early human activity extended beyond the confines of the open moors. On the open moors there is significant and well-articulated evidence over extensive areas for human exploitation of the gritstone uplands from the Neolithic to the post-medieval periods. Bronze Age activity accounts for the most intensive use of the moorlands. Evidence for it includes some of the largest and best preserved field systems and cairnfields in northern England as well as settlement sites, numerous burial monuments, stone circles and other ceremonial remains which, together, provide a detailed insight into life in the Bronze Age. Also of importance is the well preserved and often visible relationship between the remains of earlier and later periods since this provides an insight into successive changes in land use through time. A large number of the prehistoric sites on the moors, because of their rarity in a national context, excellent state of preservation and inter-connections, will be identified as nationally important.

Romano-British farmsteads are small agricultural units comprising groups of up to four circular or rectangular houses along with associated structures which may include wells, storage pits, corn-drying ovens and granary stores. These were sometimes constructed within a yard surrounded by a rectangular or curvilinear enclosure, and associated field systems, trackways and cemetaries may be located nearby. Romano-British farmsteads usually survive as buried features visible as crop and soil marks and occasionally as low earthworks. Often situated on marginal agricultural land and found thouhout the British Isles, they date to the period of Roman occuption (c.AD 43-450).

Romano-British farmsteads are generally regarded as low status settlements, with the members of one family or small kinship group pursuing a mixed farming economy. Excavation at these sites has shown a marked continuity with later prehistoric settlements. There is little evidence of personal wealth and a limited uptake of the Romanised way of life. As a highly representative form of rural settlement, all Romano-British farmsteads which have significant surviving remains will merit protection.

The Romano-British farmstead 570m north east of Ladybower Inn survives in good condition with excellent potential for further remains beneath the ground surface. Very few Romano-British settlements are known within the gritstone areas of the Peak District and the majority of Romano-British settlements existing on the limestone plateau comprise substantially larger enclosures or village-like settlements. The farmstead consequently forms part of a small but particularly important resource for understanding settlement, agriculture and native culture during the Romano-British period.

Charcoal burning platforms are small industrial features associated with areas of historically managed woodland. They date from the late medieval period through to the 19th century, although the majority are of post-medieval date. The platforms are commonly found in large groups (and are often spread through substantial areas of woodland), with occasional isolated examples. The platforms vary in size and form, but are usually oval or eliptical in shape, some later platforms are rectangular. Frequent associations include small water courses or leats, trackways and pack-horse routes. Charcoal was a vital resource for the iron smelting industry from the medieval period until the 18th century (when the demands of the new blast furnaces could not be met by the charcoal production industry and manufacturers switched to coked coal). Charcoal was also an important fuel for the lead smelting industry, in gunpowder manufacture and for the production of blister steel during the 19th century.

The charcoal burning platform 570m north east of Ladybower Inn survives in good condition and will contain undisturbed archaeological information. This feature provides important information on the medieval or post-medieval charcoal production industry.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the remains of a farmstead and post-medieval charcoal burning platform. The farmstead provides important evidence for settlement and agriculture during the Romano-British period.

The monument occupies an area of gently sloping ground looking southwards over the Ladybower Gorge. A substantial area of land directly to the south and south east of the monument has been removed by late 19th and early 20th century quarrying. The farmstead comprises the remains of two small enclosures and an oval structure representing a house site. The enclosures and house site are largely defined by rubble boundaries containing some earthfast boulders and orthostatic (edge-set) slabs. The boundaries are clearly defined and measure up to 2m in width and 0.75m in height. The largest enclosure measures 19m by 22m and forms a rough `U'shape. A small break within the southern part of the enclosure is indicative of an entrance. The enclosure may originaly have been complete, with the presently missing northern section having been completed by an organic boundary such as a hedge. Alternatively this section of the enclosure may have been removed with the construction of the drystone wall directly north of the monument. The house site is set within and attached to the eastern boundary of the large enclosure. The oval enclosure defining the building measures 7.5m by 9.7m. Sherds of Romano-British pottery have been found on the ground surface within this area. The enclosure surrounding the house site is indicative of a yard and is likely to have been used for domestic activities, as a small garden plot or as a stockpen. Fragments of a further enclosure exist some 20m north east of the settlement, these remains comprise a pile of stones, earthfast boulders and a lynchet. The north east enclosure is roughly sub-rectangular and measures 7m by 5.5m. Further investigation will be required to ascertain whether this feature represents a second house site, or part of a larger enclosure. The farmstead survives in good condition with excellent potential for undisturbed remains surviving beneath the ground surface. The farmstead is associated with a slightly larger settlement of Romano-British date located within view, to the south and on the opposite side of the Ladybower Gorge.

A level platform is situated directly to the south west of the largest enclosure. It is eliptical in shape and is terraced into the sloping ground with a low revetment along its downslope side. The platform measures 8m by 7m and is characteristic, in size and form, of a post-medieval charcoal burning platform. Similar platforms occur frequently throughout the surrounding region. This feature survives in good condition and will contain undisturbed archaeological remains.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Bevan, WJ, The Upper Derwent Archaeological Survey 1994-1997, (1998), 82
Bevan, WJ, The Upper Derwent Archaeological Survey 1994-1997, (1998), 82-83
Bevan, W J, The Upper Derwent Archaeological Survey Phase 2, year 1, (2000), 7-9
Bevan, W J, The Upper Derwent Archaeological Survey Phase 2, year 1, (2000), ill# 4
Bevan, W J, The Upper Derwent Archaeological Survey Phase 2, year 1, (2000), 7-9
Bevan, W J, The Upper Derwent Archaeological Survey Phase 2, year 1, (2000), Ill #4

National Grid Reference: SK 20898 86884

Map

Map
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This copy shows the entry on 22-Nov-2017 at 05:42:29.

End of official listing