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Medieval bridge 100m south west of Wyke House

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Medieval bridge 100m south west of Wyke House

List entry Number: 1020496

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Somerset

District: South Somerset

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Bruton

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 31-May-1934

Date of most recent amendment: 05-Jul-2002

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 35304

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Multi-span bridges are structures of two or more arches supported on piers. They were constructed throughout the medieval period for the use of pedestrians and packhorse or vehicular traffic, crossing rivers or streams, often replacing or supplementing earlier fords. During the early medieval period timber was used, but from the 12th century stone (and later brick) bridges became more common, with the piers sometimes supported by a timber raft. Most stone or brick bridges were constructed with pointed arches, although semicircular and segmental examples are also known. A common medieval feature is the presence of stone ashlar ribs underneath the arch. The bridge abutments and revetting of the river banks also form part of the bridge. Where medieval bridges have been altered in later centuries, original features are sometimes concealed behind later stonework, including remains of earlier timber bridges. The roadway was often originally cobbled or gravelled. The building and maintenance of bridges was frequently carried out by the church and by guilds, although landowners were also required to maintain bridges. From the mid-13th century the right to collect tolls, known as pontage, was granted to many bridges, usually for repairs; for this purpose many urban bridges had houses or chapels on them, and some were fortified with a defensive gateway. Medieval multi-span bridges must have been numerous throughout England, but most have been rebuilt or replaced and less than 200 examples are now known to survive. As a rare monument type largely unaltered, surviving examples and examples that retain significant medieval and post- medieval fabric are considered to be of national importance.

The medieval bridge 100m south west of Wyke House which spans the River Brue at Wyke Champflower survives very well in what is believed to be its original form of medieval construction, and retains its original masonry and features. It is a comparatively rare example of its class of monument having had no substantial modern refurbishment and displaying distinct features of medieval bridge building techniques. The bridge has remained in continual use since the medieval period and stands on what was once a major medieval routeway between Bristol and Weymouth.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a medieval bridge over the River Brue which is believed to have been built during or before the 15th century. It is situated just to the south of the village of Wyke Champflower and is constructed from rough square-cut stone with two arches separated by cutwater piers, and carries a single track minor road which was once part of the ancient Bristol to Weymouth road. The arches are pointed and formed from a double row of voussoirs built flush with the bridge facade, each with a span of approximately 3.5m. The cutwaters, constructed from the same local rough stone, have angled piers placed centrally between the arches and extend for up to 2m beyond the bridge structure. Revetment walls on the east side of the bridge appear to be built from the same stone as the arches and the cutwater piers which suggests a single phase of construction for the bridge. There are no revetments on the west side. The bridge structure is 4.1m wide, 13m in length, and is orientated from east to west across the river. It has a low stone kerb 0.1m high, which is 0.4m wide on either side and topped with a wooden post and rail fence for its entire length. The precise date for the construction of the bridge is unknown although it displays features typical of the 15th century and before, particularly its style of arch which is uncommon after 1500. It is probably the same bridge referred to in a document dating from 1677 as `the ancient common bridge at Wake Champflower' which records it as being in great decay. This suggests that the bridge has been restored at least once, and to its original form. The bridge is Listed Grade II. The modern surfacing of the single track minor road and the wooden side posts and rails are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground and bridge fabric beneath are included.







MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Jervoise, E, The Ancient Bridges of the South of England, (1930), 105

National Grid Reference: ST 65706 34046

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1020496 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 23-Nov-2017 at 07:49:14.

End of official listing