Bob Gin Pitt mine drainage system 520m south east of Wallington Hall

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1020739

Date first listed: 05-Jul-2002

Map

Ordnance survey map of Bob Gin Pitt mine drainage system 520m south east of Wallington Hall
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Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Northumberland (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Wallington Demesne

National Grid Reference: NZ 03062 83728

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Coal has been mined in England since Roman times, and between 8,000 and 10,000 coal industry sites of all dates up to the collieries of post-war nationalisation are estimated to survive in England. Three hundred and four coal industry sites, representing approximately 3% of the estimated national archaeological resource for the industry have been identified as being of national importance. This selection, compiled and assessed through a comprehensive survey of the coal industry, is designed to represent the industry's chronological depth, technological breadth and regional diversity. Coalmills are water-powered pumping installations, generally consisting of a series of waterwheels set in a vertical sequence which were employed to drain single mines or areas of mine workings. They were developed towards the end of the 16th century in response to the increased need for mechanical mine drainage arising from the development of large-scale coal mining. They were established primarily in the north eastern coalfields during the 17th and early 18th centuries, although further examples are thought to have existed elsewhere. Coalmills survive almost exclusively as earthworks. They represent sophisticated examples of hydraulic engineering during this period and all surviving coalmill sites are considered worthy of protection.

The Bob Gin Pitt mine drainage system 520m south east of Wallington Hall is a good example of the type of drainage system operating at coal mines during the later 18th century before the advent of the steam engine. Only five examples are believed to survive and the example at Wallington is both early and remarkably complete. It retains a good range of component features including a wheel pit, pumping shaft and leat which survive well. There has been no later development at the site and the remains provide valuable information on drainage operations during this period. The survival of a shaft associated with coal workings at Deanham Colliery enhances the importance of the monument.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the upstanding and buried remains of the drainage system for Deanham Colliery and a shaft situated on the north bank of the valley of the River Wansbeck. Deanham Colliery was situated beneath and on both banks of the river, although no further remains are visible today. The drainage system, also known as a coalmill, which includes a wheel pit, a pumping shaft and part of a leat, is known locally as the Bob Gin Pitt. It was installed between 1730 and 1767 to drain Deanham Colliery, one of three collieries on the Wallington estate in the 18th century. Deanham Colliery closed in 1774. The pump operated by means of a vertical water wheel which was fed by a leat from the west. The remains of the drainage system are visible as a series of prominent earthworks. The wheel pit survives as a rectangular hollow 11m by 6m and 3m deep with spoil tips up to 1.5m high on the east and west sides. On the south side, the wheel pit is enclosed by a mound of spoil 1m high; beneath this mound a stone lined drain runs in a south easterly direction towards the river, although the exact position of its outfall is uncertain. The pumping shaft, 6m by 3.5m and up to 2m deep, is rectangular in shape. It is separated from the wheel pit by a stone wall, visible as the fragmentary remains of its lower courses. The leat which supplied water to power the pump lies to the west of the pumping shaft and is visible as a slightly concave platform, an average of 1.5m wide and up to 0.2m deep, running along the contour of the valley. A 31m length of this leat is included in the scheduling including a 5m section which contains a later stone channel forming a culvert. A mine shaft lies 1.5m north of the leat and, circular in shape, it measures 4m in diameter and is 1.5m deep. This is included in the scheduling.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 34237

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Books and journals
Beamish, H, 'Archaeology North' in Coal Mining on the Wallington Estate, , Vol. 1, (1991), 44-45
Other
NZ 08 SW 64,

End of official listing